Aviation of World War II
Fighter and Fighter-Bomber
Fighter-Bomber Fw-190 - the unique German fighter designed and started in mass production already during war. Originally the airplane was projected under the radial engine, the standard became model Fw-190D with the V-shaped engine Jumo 213.
Power of the engine could increase for short time up to 2100-2240 hp due to use of system MW-50.
The overweight of an airplane had an adverse effect on a manoeuvrability. Time of turn for 3-4 sec is more (22 sec instead of 19), than at La - 5, La - 7, and the rate of climb made 12-14м/sec while at other fighters it made 15-20 m/sec. Therefore FW-190 carried out a task of air cover of a land forces, and also it was applied as a fighter - bomber and attack aircraft as on the armament it was the most high-power fighter in the world.
The FW 190D-9 at the Soviet AF Scientific Research Institute. The war was already over when the latest German aircraft powered by piston engines that the Nazis employed during the final days of combat arrived for testing. First of all, our specialists examined the Fw 190D-9 ("long-nosed Dora") The D-9 modification had a Jumo 213A liquid-cooled engine instead of the air-cooled BMW 801D well known to us. This made it possible to improve the aerodynamics of the motor group and lengthened the plane by 80 cm. The more powerful engine promised superiority of the new aircraft over the Fw 190A in speed and rate of climb. We knew about reverse modification of several fighters when more powerful engines cooled by oil and the flow of air replaced the water-cooled engines (LaGG-3 -> La-5; Ki 61 -> Ki 100).
To what extent was the correlation of the basic flight data of the German "long-nosed Fokker" and of the best Red Army Air Forces series-produced fighters changed? In the opinion of leading Flight Research Institute specialists, modified Fw 190D-9 No 210251 was not on a par with the domestic Yak-3, Yak-9U, and La-7 at low and medium altitudes. Its ground-level speed was lower by 24 km/h and by more than 10 km/h at 5000 meters. It was also outperformed in horizontal and vertical maneuverability.
The successful layout of the power plant and of the equipment comprising the propeller engine group, maximum allowable engine oil inlet temperature (130°C), successfully design of the automatic cooling liquid temperature regulator, and highly efficient wooden propeller blades were of the greatest interest tc our domestic industry. It was also noted that, during the 11-26 May 1945 testing period, all special equipment units on the German aircraft operated faultlessly. Study of a special unit in the FUG-16ZY radio that allowed the receiver to be used in the radio navigational system was of great use.
The high quality of the armored cockpit windshield and successful gun sight design supplemented the well-developed fire control system. In contrast to use heavily armed domestic aircraft, sighting in on the target was not disrupted when all the guns were firing and the pilot virtually did not feel the recoil. Cannon and machine guns could be fired separately and the wide use of electrical equipment made the pilot's work easier.
The Fw 190D-9 fighter flew in simulated aerial combat against a La-5 that demonstrated the complete superiority of the domestic machine. Institute pilots Engineer-Lieutenant Colonel A. G. Kochetkov, Lieutenant Colonels A G. Proshakov and V. I. Khomyakov, and Major V. Ye. Golofastov concluded that it was no easier for the new German model to fight against the Lavochkin than was the case for its predecessor, the Fw 190A-8. Initiating combat on a collision course. The Soviet fighter took a position for a rear-hemisphere attack after the third bank or the second combat turn. However, the wet power thrust was not used, which certainly had its effect on the Fw 190D-9 flight data.
The modifications: the FW-190D-0 without external wing guns for increase of a manoeuvrability.
The FW-190D-10-b disorder of cylinders instead of 2 13-mm of machine guns - 30-mm cannon MK-108.
The FW-190D-11-b a wing of two 20-mm and two 30-mm cannons.
The FW-190D-12 the attack modification - armament similar previous, had increased armour protection of the engine and a cabin of the pilot.