Aviation of World War II
High altitude Bomber
Originally designated Ju 86H, this variant appeared as Ju 86P. To the fuselage from Ju 86D "Junkers" added a new two-seater pressurized cockpit, the pressure in which was maintained equivalent to an altitude of 3000 m. This was achieved by pressurizing the air taken from the left engine blower, and the cockpit structure used multilayer plexiglass glazing, the space between which was filled with dry air. The crew entered the cockpit through a round hatch located below on the starboard side. The prototype Ju 86Р VI took off in February 1940, and in March - V2, both aircraft with diesel engines Jumo 207А-1 reached an altitude of more than 10,000 m. On the V3, a wing of an increased span was used to raise the ceiling - and this aircraft could fly at an altitude of 11,000 m for more than 2.5 hours.
We immediately ordered 40 vehicles in two versions: the Ju.86P-1 high-altitude bomber, capable of carrying 4x250 kg or 16x50 kg of bombs; high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft Ju.86P-2 with three automatic cameras. The proposed combat flight plan included a climb of 11,000 m 45 minutes after take-off and overflight 265 km. After that, the flight continued at this altitude, at a cruising speed of 345 km / h. At 200 km to the target, a slow climb to 12,000 m began. This height was reached 100 km from the target. At 50 kilometers, the pilot was removing the gas in order to get close unnoticed and inaudibly. The bombs were dropped from an altitude of 9500-10,000 m. Then the pilot gave gas and again climbed to 12,000 m. There was no defensive armament. The fuel supply consisted of 1000 liters, which provided a four-hour flight. The takeoff weight of the Ju 86P-1 was 10,400 kg, the Ju 86P-2 was 9500 kg.
In the summer of 1940, one of the experienced Ju.86Ps was transferred to the reconnaissance group of the high command of the Luftwaffe, led by Rovel, for military trials. At the same time, reconnaissance flights were carried out over Britain at an altitude of 12,500 m. The plane could not even be detected. Several Ju.86P-1 and P-2 were delivered to the 2nd squadron of this group. During 1940 they made a number of reconnaissance flights over the British Isles. In January 1941, the group formed the fourth squadron (4./Aufkl.Gr.Ob.d.L), also known as the "high-altitude flight test center". In addition to a number of other aircraft, it received the Ju.86P-1 and P-2. Operating from Northern Germany, the squadron made combat and reconnaissance flights over the British Isles. She also conducted photographic reconnaissance over the territory of the USSR. At the same time, the squadron operated from the airfields of Budapest and Krakow. With the beginning of the invasion of the Soviet Union, three squadrons of the group were transferred to the Eastern Front, and the 4th remained in the West and continued to conduct reconnaissance from extreme heights.
In January 1942, the Ju 86 air unit was renamed the 1st Squadron of the Luftwaffe High Command, and several Ju 86P-2s entered the 2nd Squadron for combat use (2. (F) /AufkiGR.Ob.dL ) based in Crete.
During the raids on Britain, the Ju 86Ps, which often dropped only one bomb on various targets, were like an eyesore for British fighter aircraft, it took a lot of effort to stop the Junkers. A hastily modified Spitfire Mk VI with a pressurized cockpit and an enlarged wing was prepared for interception, but no attempt was successful, only in one case he managed to open fire on the Ju 86P above him, and immediately he lost speed. The Junkers dived down from a height of 12,200 m to 150 m and disappeared from the Spitfire's field of vision. These aircraft made the last 12 bombings of Britain on September 9, 1942.
Despite the fact that interceptors repeatedly spotted these Ju 86s, they could not hit them until August 24, 1944, when a specially lightweight Spitfire Mk V, which flew from a base in Aboukir (Egypt), intercepted the Ju 86P and shot it down at an altitude of 12 800 m north of Cairo. The Junkers were immediately fitted with an MG 17 machine gun to fire backwards, but the Spitfires from Abukir soon shot down two more Ju 8bRs, and (2. (F) / AufklGr 123) stopped using these aircraft by August 1943.
At the beginning of 1942, the Germans realized that the Allies could soon create an interceptor that could easily cope with the Ju 86P, so in the middle of 1942 the Ju 86R took to the skies. It was made on the basis of the Ju 86P. On the wing, increased to an incredible size - 32m, modified Jumo-207B-3 diesels were installed, developing 1000 hp and 750 hp at takeoff at an altitude of 12,200 m, and the use of the GM-1 afterburner ensured a higher altitude. The fuel supply was provided for 1935 liters, which ensured a flight duration of 7 hours 10 minutes. The three-bladed propeller was replaced with a four-bladed one. This made it possible to reach a ceiling of 14,400 meters. The designation modifications in relation to the P series were reversed - the Ju 86R-1 became a reconnaissance aircraft, and the Ju 86R-2 became a bomber. Several Ju 86R-1s entered service with the 1st Squadron (1 ./Versuchsverband Ob.d.L.) and until mid-1944 participated in a large number of combat missions. Three Ju 86R-2s in September 1942 became part of the 14th squadron of the 6th bomber squadron, based in the Netherlands, but in October this air unit was disbanded.
Before entering service with the Ju.86R-1, the Junkers designers began to develop an even higher-altitude aircraft with a ceiling of up to 16,000 m. The Ju.86R-3 project provided for the use of new Jumo-208 engines with an estimated takeoff power of 1,500 hp and 1100 hp at an altitude of 12,000-15,000 m. Jumo-208 should have blowers modeled on the Daimler-Benz DB-605T. However, the termination of work on the Jumo-208 also stopped work on the Ju.86R-3, along with a parallel project Ju.186 high-altitude research aircraft with four Jumo-208s or two Jumo-218s (twin Jumo-208).
Since 1941, German high-altitude aircraft Ju-86 made unpunished flights over Moscow, conducting aerial reconnaissance. The aircraft in service with the USSR were not prepared for firing at high altitudes at low temperatures. It was urgently required to equip air defense with high-altitude fighters and oxygen equipment.
In 1943, on the instructions of the State Defense Committee, the Lavochkin Design Bureau began work on the creation of a high-altitude fighter by installing TsIAM turbochargers TK-3 on the La-5 aircraft. To obtain a ceiling height of about 14 km, in addition to the installation of the TK, the wing and tail area was increased, a new propeller was installed, the armor and one gun were removed. However, during factory tests, the plane crashed.
In 1944, work on the creation of a high-altitude fighter was continued on the basis of the serial La-7. In July 1944, factory tests began. In view of the long-term refinement of the VMG with the TC, testing of one of the prototypes, which received the factory index "116", continued until the beginning of 1946, after which they were discontinued as having lost their relevance.
The hopes placed on the Yak-9PD with Dollezhal superchargers and on the MiG-11 with turbochargers also did not come true. Our aviation could not oppose anything to the German Ju-86 aircraft.
A total of 470 Ju-86 aircraft were produced.