Aviation of World War II
Heavy Night Fighter
Immediately after its introduction in 1942, the Ju-88C-6 proved to be very effective as a night fighter. It was the first aircraft of this type, designed during the development of the Ju-88C heavy fighter.
Nevertheless, initially this aircraft did not receive a proper assessment, since the installation of additional equipment inevitably led to an increase in the weight of the machine and a deterioration in its aerodynamic qualities, and, as a result, to a decrease in speed.
All this led to the appearance in the spring of 1943 of the year and the prototype of the next, significantly improved model of the Jg-88V58 night fighter (Ju-88G V1). The prototype Ju 88V58 (GI+BV, W.Nr. 700001) was flown on 24 June 1943. BMW 801D engines with a capacity of 1250 kW / 1700 hp were installed on the aircraft. This prototype was created by altering the standard Ju-88R bomber with the installation of a Ju-188 tail unit on it.
The aircraft's exhaust pipes were placed differently and the cockpit armor was reinforced. The armament consisted of as many as six MG 151/20 guns with 200 rounds of ammunition per barrel. These guns were located in the ventral gondola and in the forward fuselage. A machine gun MG 131 was mounted in the rear installation. Instead of a permanent antenna, a retractable mast was used, the FuBl 2 antenna was replaced with FuG 25 (whip antenna) and FuG 16ZY (loop antenna). The FuG 101 altimeter antenna was located under the left wing. In addition to everything listed above, the FuG 212 radar was installed on the aircraft.
Junkers 88G-1. At the end of 1943, the first Ju 88G-1 aircraft rolled off the assembly line, which was completely similar to the Ju 88V58, but was equipped with a FuG 220 radar instead of the FuG 212. On Ju 88G aircraft -1 of the first releases put exhaust fairings. On late production aircraft, the exhaust system was redesigned. On the plane, the aileron area was increased and a Kuto Nase balloon cable cutter was installed. The aircraft was equipped with a modernized set of radio and navigation equipment. The placement of crew members in the cockpit has changed. On some aircraft, a GM 1 pressurization system was installed. The standard armament of the aircraft was four MG 151/20 caliber 20 mm, placed in the ventral gondola. On some fighters, immediately behind the cockpit, Schrage Musik was installed. ETC 500 bomb racks could hang drop fuel tanks. At the end of the war, Ju 88G fighters began to play the role of night bombers.
On July 27, 1943, comparative tests of the Ju 88G-1 with the new He 219 Uhu night fighter were carried out.
On 13 July 1944, a Ju 88 G-1 (4R+UR) of 7./NJG 2 landed by mistake at the airfield at Woodbridge, Essex. The latest radars fell into the hands of the Allies: FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 and FuG 227 Flensburg. Having studied the equipment, the British removed the Monica radar from their aircraft.
In later Ju 88G-Is, a Morane antenna (FuG 16ZY) was installed in place of the removed MG 151/20 cannon. The Ju 88G-1 aircraft did not have a lower installation, the radar antennas were given a streamlined shape. The exhaust pipe opened at the base of the engine nacelle. The aircraft used VDM metal propellers.
Junkers 88G-6. The Ju 88G-6 aircraft were powered by 1286 kW/1750 hp Jumo 213 engines. with wooden screws VS-111. The compressor air intake was located on the right side, the engine cooling system was upgraded. Exhaust pipes received flame arresters.
Ju 88G-6 was 40 km/h faster than Ju 88G-1. Like the Ju 88G-1. the aircraft had two ETC 500 bomb racks under the wings. The FuG 16ZY radio station was located in the fuselage, the FuG 217 rear hemisphere surveillance radar antenna was located under the left wing. The Ju 88G-6 aircraft were armed with "Schrage musik" - MG 151/20 cannons. The guns were located asymmetrically, on the left (on early aircraft) or on the right (on later aircraft). The ammunition capacity of the MG 15I / 20 guns in the ventral gondola was increased from 200 to 500 rounds per barrel. MG 131 was placed in the rear device. In addition to the FuG 220 SN-2 radar, new types of radars were installed on the aircraft: FuG 218 Neptun, FuG 350 Naxos Z and, at the end of the war, FuG 240 Berlin.
It is worth talking more about these radars. The most modern of these was the FuG 240 Berlin N-la. They managed to release only 25-30 copies. Instead of the usual whip antenna, this radar was equipped with a parabolic antenna. The antenna was covered with a plywood and plexiglass fairing. The range of the radar is 500-5000 meters. The next type of radar was the FuG 218 VR Neptun. They began to equip German aircraft from the end of 1944. The radar worked in the range of 158-187 MHz, the range was 110-5000 meters. The antenna was mounted on a single bracket, on the "X" frame (Hirschgeweich - deer antlers), the rear hemisphere radar antenna was attached to the elevator.
FuG 350 Naxos Radar. like the FuG 227 Flensburg, it served to detect British H2S radars. Naxos was installed on the cockpit frame under the fairing or it was carried out in one block with the FuG 220.
Another modern type of radar used on the Ju 88G-6 was the FuG 220 SN-2. The radar operated in two bands: 84-82 MHz (I, II and III frequencies) and 91-116 MHz (IV, V, VI and VII frequencies). The radar range was over 10 km, but it was also effective at short distances. Two types of antennas were used: "herringbone" and "star" (Morgenstern). The "star" antenna was covered by a fairing if this antenna was interlocked with the FuG 350 Naxos antenna. The fairing was made of plywood, and the top of the fairing was made of Plexiglas.
Junkers 88G-7. The aircraft of this modification were equipped with Jumo 213E engines equipped with an MW 50 boost system (a water-methanol mixture was used) and four-bladed wooden propellers. The wingspan was increased to 21,935 meters by installing internal wing segments from the Ju 188. The armament remained the same as that of the Ju 88G-6. The radio equipment consisted of a FuG 220 SN-2 radar with a Morgenstern antenna or a FuG 240 Berlin radar. Crew of three or four. The aircraft was not mass-produced, a prototype Ju 88V112 (W.Nr. 621045), a prototype Ju 88V113 (W.Nr621044) equipped with GM1 and two more prototypes VI14 and VI15 were manufactured. The first two prototypes were destroyed during an Allied air raid. The Ju 88G-7 aircraft received the unofficial name Mosquitojaeger ("Mosquito hunter").
Junkers 88G-10. This was a version of the Ju 88G-6 with extra fuel tanks. The fuselage was lengthened by 2235 mm.
In the spring of 1945, a small series of these aircraft were built and used as part of the Mistel design.
In total, over 2800 Ju-88G night fighters were manufactured in the Ju-88G-1, G-4, G-6 and G 7 variants, each of which had two or three more sub-variants with different weapons and different types of radars. These vehicles entered service starting in the summer of 1944.
Ju 88G Night fighter, new fuselage with A-series' ventral Bola (Bodenlafette) gondola omitted, tail section from Ju 188, aerodynamically improved conformal gun pod for a quartet of forward-firing 20 mm calibre, MG 151/20 autocannons below the former bomb bay.
Ju 88 G-1 BMW 801 radial engines with 1700 PS, FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 radar
Ju 88 G-6 Junkers Jumo 213A inverted V12 engines with 1750 PS, used either FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 90 MHz or FuG 218 Neptun 158/187 MHz frequency radar, either with the usual Hirschgeweih eight-dipole aerial setup or experimentally with the more aerodynamic Morgernstern tripled crossed-dipole aerials. Some very-late-war aircraft equipped with experimental FuG 240 Berlin cavity magnetron based 3 GHz radar, with dish antenna in bulbous solid nose. Optional with Schräge Musik upward firing guns with two 20 mm or 30 mm guns.
Ju 88 G-7 Identical to G-6, but with Jumo 213E high-altitude engines, planned for use with FuG 218/220 with Morgenstern array or FuG 240. The G-7 was also to be installed with wings from the Junkers Ju 188.
Ju 88G-3, 4 and 8 not produced.
Marine Long-Range Reconnaissance Aircraft
At the beginning of 1943, at the request of the leadership of the Kriegsmarine, the Junkers company, with the involvement of SNCASO units in Chatillon, began developing an ultra-long version of the "eighty-eighth", intended for operations over the expanses of the Atlantic. The machine was worked out in two versions: a bomber and a reconnaissance aircraft. The maximum range of the Ju88H-1 reconnaissance modification was supposed to be 4800 km and provide the possibility of a 12-hour flight at a cruising speed of more than 400 km / h, and the SC 500 four-bomb bomber was supposed to be able to hit enemy targets at a distance of 1600 km from the coast of France . However, the bomber version was soon abandoned in favor of an ultra-long-range "destroyer" aircraft, designated Ju 88N-2. Such a machine was supposed to be armed with four MG 151/20 guns in the ventral compartment.
The H-1 prototype (manufacturer No. 430820) made its first flight on November 2, 1943. By the end of the year, the second prototype and two serial machines were built. The wing of the aircraft with BMW 80ID engines was borrowed from the Ju88G-l heavy fighter. The fuel supply in the wing tanks was 1677 liters. Two additional sections were built into the fuselage from the Ju 88D-l: in front of the wing with a length of 1 m and behind the wing with a length of 2.3 m, as a result, the length of the machine increased to 17.65 m. The aircraft was equipped with three cameras, and some machines were also equipped with a FuG radar 200 Hohentwil. In March 1944, Detachment 3(F)/123 had five Ju88H-l and three in reserve. The first sortie of the H-1 (airborne 4U + AL) was made on May 3, 1944, covering 3000 km along the coast of France and Spain, and then flying to Ireland in just 8 hours. On July 31, 1944, one of the ultra-long-range scouts did not return from a combat mission.
As for the "destroyer" H-2, only one prototype was built. Additional sections in the fuselage from the Ju 88S made it possible to install three tanks with a capacity of 1215 liters and one -1045 liters. With two suspended 900-liter tanks, the maximum fuel volume increased to 6460 liters, and the take-off weight to 15,300 kg, which ensured a technical range of 5120 km.
There were projects for the H-3 (H-1 with an even longer fuselage) and H-4 (ultra-long-range reconnaissance-target designator with the FW 190A fighter designed to protect the carrier). Both projects remained only on paper.
Ju 88H Long-range photo-reconnaissance, fighter variants, based on the stretched Ju 88G-series fuselage.
Ju 88 H-1 Long-range maritime reconnaissance variant, equipped with a FuG 200 Hohentwiel radar and a trio of remotely controlled cameras in the aft fuselage.
Ju 88 H-2 Fighter variant intended to attack Allied long range convoy escort aircraft armed with six Forward firing MG 151/20.
Ju 88 H-3 Ultra-long-range maritime reconnaissance variant similar to H-1.
Ju 88 H-4 Destroyer variant.
Ju 88P Anti-tank and bomber destroyer variant with single Bordkanone series 75 mm (2.95 in), 50 mm (1.97 in), or twin 37 mm (1.46 in) calibre cannon in conformal ventral fuselage gun pod mount, which mandated removal of the Bola gondola under the cockpit section, conversion of A-series bomber. Produced in small series only, they were perceived as a failure for both anti-tank and anti-bomber use.
Ju 88 P-1 Heavy-gun variant fitted with single 75 mm (2.95 in) Bordkanone BK 7,5 cannon in ventral gun pod. Appeared in mid-1942 in small numbers.
Ju 88 P-2 Heavy-gun variant with twin 37 mm (1.46 in) Bordkanone BK 37 cannon in ventral gun pod.
Ju 88 P-3 Heavy-gun variant with twin 37 mm (1.46 in) Bordkanone BK 37 cannon in ventral gun pod, and additional armor.
Ju 88 P-4 Heavy-gun variant with single 50 mm (1.97 in) Bordkanone BK 5 cannon in ventral gun pod. There were 32 built.
Ju 88 P-5 Proposed heavy-gun variant with single 88 mm, none known to have ever been built.
Ju 88R C-series night fighters with BMW 801 engines.
Ju 88S High-speed bomber series based on Ju 88 A-4 but with ventral Bola gondola omitted, smoothly glazed nose with radial-ribbed supports instead of the "beetle's eye" of the A-version, and GM-1 nitrous-oxide boost, fastest of all variants.
Ju 88 S-0 Fitted with two BMW 801 G-2 engines, single 13 mm (.51 in) dorsal gun and 14 SD65 (65 kg/143 lb) bombs.
Ju 88 S-1 Fitted with two BMW 801 G-2 engines, the GM-1 boost system and could carry two SD1000 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) bombs externally.
Ju 88 S-2 Fitted with two turbocharged BMW 801J engines, wooden bomb bay extension as used on the Ju 88 A-15.
Ju 88 S-3 Fitted with two 1,671 kW (2,240 hp) Jumo 213A engines and GM-1 boost system.
Ju 88T Three-seat photo-reconnaissance version of S-series.
Ju 88 T-1 Based on the Ju 88 S-1 but with bomb bays fitted for extra fuel or GM-1 tanks.
Ju 88 T-3 Based on the Ju 88 S-3.