Light Attack Aircraft
On August 4, 1935, the Decree of the Council of Labor and Defense No. S-96 "About redesigning the Di-6 for an attack aircraft" with the following data: maximum flight speed near the ground - 340-350 km / h (at an altitude of 3000 m - 390-400 km / h), landing speed - 90-95 km / h, range - 400-500 km. Armament, six normal caliber forward-firing machine guns, one defensive machine gun and 80 kg of bombs.
The resolution of the STO obliged the GUAP (namely, plant No. 39) to manufacture this machine within a month and a half. At the same time, the first copy of the DI-6Sh was allowed to be built without armor and the issue of installing it was decided after testing the prototype.
In addition, the GUAP was supposed to speed up the preparation of the production of the DI-6Sh attack aircraft at the plant No. 81, in order to ensure their serial production from the beginning of 1936.
In the period from October 31 to November 19, 1935, joint factory and field tests were carried out on the first copy of the light high-speed attack aircraft DI-6Sh M-25 (TsKB-38), produced at the Central Design Bureau of Plant No. 39 department V.P. Yatsenko under the general leadership of the head of the brigade (or KB-1) S.A. Kocherigin.
The aircraft was a modification of the two-seat Di-6 fighter, made according to the scheme of a single-column polutoraplan with a landing gear retractable into the center section of the lower wing with original brake wheels with internal shock absorption.
The DI-6Sh had an armored backrest and pilot's seat cup.
Offensive armament consisted of two synchronous PV-1 machine guns, four PV-1 machine guns mounted under the lower wing in special fairings at an angle of 2 ° 17 "to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft with an ammunition capacity of 3000 (4000 overload) rounds and a bomb load of up to 80 kg ( 8-10 kg bombs, 4 under the wing and 4 under the fuselage).
For defense against enemy fighter attacks from the rear hemisphere, ShKAS (ammunition load of 750 rounds) served on a pivot mount at the shooter.
With a flight weight of 2115 kg, the aircraft developed a speed near the ground of 305 km / h, and at an altitude of 3000 m - 358 km / h. The climb time of 5000 m was 17.5 minutes.
In eight flights, small arms were tested, in three - bombs and in two - chemical weapons.
Wing machine-gun batteries worked normally. Machine gun control and aiming is convenient Shooting was carried out from a height of 10-15 m.
The target was a company of infantry in marching order Plywood "soldiers" were placed on an area of 20x100 m, 80% of which were hit as a result of the DI-6Sh attack. At the same time, about 20% of the total number of fired bullets hit the targets.
In general, the shooting results were considered good. However, it was noted that at altitudes above 17 m "shooting is not provided" due to unsatisfactory forward-downward visibility.
Bomb and chemical weapons have never failed during the entire period of testing. But military pilots noted that the weight of the bomb load and the range of bombs did not correspond to tactical tasks and severely limited the combat capabilities of the machine as an attack aircraft.
In addition, the control of an attack aircraft near the ground, especially at high speeds, was difficult and tiring for the pilot (the aircraft pitched heavily, the pressure on the control stick was high).
The latter made it very difficult for the pilot to conduct a detailed orientation to reach the target and did not allow targeted bombing. The navigator, due to the lack of the necessary visibility, could not help the commander in any way.
Despite the presence of a number of obvious shortcomings, the DI-6Sh was accepted for serial construction and was produced in small quantities from the end of 1936 at the aircraft factory No. 1 (61 copies).
In addition, in the combat units, as the Di-6 fighters were removed from service, the latter were converted by the forces of the engineering and technical staff of the units into assault variants.
In the summer of 1938, the DI-6Sh studied the modes of bombing from a dive at angles of 40-90 °
It was recommended to enter into a dive from a height of at least 2500 m, the permissible overload at the output is 3.5-6 at a speed not exceeding 450 km/h. In this case, over the entire range of angles, the attack aircraft dived steadily, had no tendency to drag at large angles, and was sensitive to rudder deviations. No vibrations of the tail and wings were observed during the dive.
After a comprehensive analysis of the capabilities of the DI-6Sh and the conditions of modern battles, military experts concluded that these aircraft could only be used as training aircraft at the first stage of training the flight crew of combat units for dive bombing.
The bomb load of 40 kg, as well as the impossibility of hanging large-caliber air bombs on the DI-6Sh, made it almost pointless to dive bomb in combat conditions.
As a result, the DI-6Sh was gradually transferred to the category of training for assault units.
Thus, despite the enormous efforts of the country, the combat units of the assault aviation of the Red Army by the end of the 30s were in a state of "protracted" crisis.
Inspection of the assault air units of the Red Army, carried out by the Air Force command in the first half of November 1938 (at that time the Air Force had 12 full-time assault air regiments), showed their extremely low combat capability
The attack aviation regiments were armed with a variety of materiel, the combat qualities of which were characterized by a high commission as inadequate to the requirements of modern warfare and the tactics of the combat use of attack aircraft.
In particular, it was noted that the DI-6Sh aircraft for strafing strikes, due to poor forward-downward visibility, is completely unsuitable.
The flight performance of the combat vehicles of the regiments did not correspond to the modern development of aviation.
Of the 561 aircraft that were in service with ground attack aviation regiments, there were 200 R-5 aircraft, R-5Sh - 82 aircraft, R-5SSS - 174 aircraft, DI-6Sh attack aircraft - 60 aircraft, R-6 - 31 pcs. and SB - 14 machines (the latter were used as auxiliary and for training flight crews).
|Wing span upper, m
|Wings area, m²
|1 × radial PE M-25, hp
|1 × 700
|Weights and loads, kg:
|Empty weight, kg
|Loaded weight, kg
|Max speed near the ground, km/h
|Cruise speed, km/h
|Service ceiling, m
|Service range, km
|Two synchronous 7.62 mm PV-1 machine guns,
four PV-1 machine guns mounted under the lower wing
up to 80 kg of bombs (bombs 8-10 kg, 4 under the wing and 4 under the fuselage)
- The history of aircraft designs in the USSR, 1938-1950. / V.B. Shavrov /
- Fighter DI-6 / KR Ivnamin Sultanov /
- Lost in the ranks / KR Nikolay Soiko /
The first in our country two-seat fighters DI-1 and DI-2 were developed under the leadership of N.N. Polikarpov in the second half of the 1920s at the Moscow aircraft plant No.1. Then this work was continued at the Central Design Bureau of the Aviarabotnik plant named after Menzhinsky. In the summer of 1931, a mixed-design biplane DI-3 was built there, and at the beginning of 1933 a strut-braced all-metal high-wing DI-4 by the French designer A. Lavil. All of them became prototypes. A logical continuation of this direction in the Central Design Bureau of the Aviarabotnik plant was the creation by the brigade of S.A. Kocherigin in the summer of 1934 two-seat biplane TsKB-11 or DI-6. The aircraft designer V.P. Yatsenko. Behind the shoulders of a recent graduate of the Moscow Aviation Institute, there was a great life and professional experience. After graduating from the Kursk real school in 1915, Vladimir Panfilovich served in the army as an aircraft mechanic and mechanic, worked as a designer at V.V. Slyusarenko, A.A. Porokhovshchikova and Yu.A. Möller. Since 1924, at the plant No.1 under the leadership of N.N. Polikarpova Yatsenko designed the fuselages of the I-3, DI-2, U-2, TB-2 and R-5 aircraft.
In October 1929, he was appointed a leading designer at the Central Design Bureau of Plant No.39. In the fall of 1931, Yatsenko headed the newly formed design group of two-seat fighters TsKB-TsAGI, which worked at the TsAGI experimental design plant. The next year, after another structural restructuring of the experimental aircraft construction, the V.P. Yatsenko was attached to the brigade of attack aircraft and scouts of Sergei Alekseevich Kocherigin at plant No.39.