Aviation of World War II
By the spring of 1935, the design department of the main department of the Kriegsmarine developed a working design for an aircraft carrier. At the same time, Arado Flugzeugwerke was commissioned to begin work on a carrier-based torpedo bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, resulting in the Ar 95 biplane.
The first prototype of the Ar 95 VI (D-OLUO) first flew in the fall of 1936. It had the basic configuration for this type in the form of a two-seat, single-column biplane with a monocoque fuselage made of light metal alloys and offset wings folding towards the tail section. The wings had duralumin spars and ribs, their upper surfaces were sheathed with light metal, the lower surfaces with canvas. The aircraft was equipped with a pair of light metal floats and a BMW 132 nine-cylinder radial engine with an 845 horsepower (630 kW). Soon the second prototype Ar 95 V2 (D-OHEO) took off, which differed from its predecessor by a 12-cylinder liquid-cooled Junkers Jumo 210 Ca engine with a take-off power of 600 hp (447 kW). Subsequently, the Ar 95 V2 was also fitted with a BMW 132 engine. Both prototypes were two-seaters, but the third prototype, the Ar 95 V3 (D-ODGY), which joined the test program in early 1937, was a three-seater, as was the Ar 95 V5 (D -OHGV). The last two aircraft became the prototypes of the Ar 95A serial seaplane.
The Ar 95 V4 experimental aircraft received a wheeled landing gear with large, elegant fairings. It became the prototype for the Ar 95B version. During testing, all five Ar 95 prototypes showed performance far below the target. It became clear that the Ar 95B would be obsolete by the time the first German aircraft carrier was commissioned. Therefore, in the spring of 1937, a new specification was issued, resulting in the Arado Ar 195 and Fieseler Fi 167. In the meantime, Arado Flugzeugwerke produced an experimental batch of Ar 95A-0 seaplanes and began to advertise them abroad with the support of the German Air Ministry.
Six three-seat Ar 95A-0 seaplanes were equipped with a BMW 132Dc radial engine with an 880 hp power (656 kW) and a three-bladed Hamilton Standard variable pitch propeller. Defensive armament is a fixed forward-firing 7.92 mm MG 17 machine gun with 500 rounds of ammunition, and a 7.92 mm MG 15 machine gun on a mobile mount in the rear cockpit with eight discs of 75 rounds each.
Combat use. In 1938, all six pre-production Ar 95A-0 seaplanes were assigned to the Legion "Condor" in the 64th group in Pollensa, Mallorca, for reconnaissance and anti-shipping. In April 1939, it was disbanded, and three Ar 95A-0 aircraft were handed over to the Francoists. They served in Spain until 1948.
Limited production of a two-seat version of the Ar 95A-1 began in 1938. Chile ordered three of these seaplanes, along with three Ar 95B wheeled landing gear. This order was completed in 1939. An additional batch of Ar 95A-1 machines was delivered in 1939-1940 by the Luftwaffe: eight aircraft entered the 3rd squadron of the 125th naval reconnaissance air group (Z. / SAGr 125), and its other two squadrons received He 60 and He 114, respectively .
When Germany attacked the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, Ar 95А-1 biplanes from the 3rd squadron of the 125th group operated in the Baltic as part of the Ostsee (Baltic) aviation command. As the offensive developed, this unit moved to Latvia and Estonia, and in October 1941 participated in the landing on the Moonsund Islands (Moon and Dago Islands). Later, part was briefly transferred to Finland. At the end of 1941, the unit was transferred to Constanta, Romania, replacing its Ar 95А-1 biplanes with Blohm und Voss BV 138 flying boats. 60 and Arado, operated in the Gulf of Finland as part of the 1st Air Fleet.
Armament. One fixed 7.9 mm MG-17 machine gun with 500 rounds and one 7.9 mm MG-15 machine gun with 600 rounds on a mobile mount; 700kg torpedo or 375kg external sling bomb.
On December 28, 1936, aircraft carrier A was laid down on slipway No.1 Deutschewerke Kiel, and a few weeks later the Technical Department of the RLM issued a task for a two-seat multi-purpose aircraft for this ship. The specifications issued by Arado and Fieseler called for an all-metal biplane with folding wings capable of withstanding diving at speeds up to 600 km/h. Armament was planned from one torpedo or up to 500 kg of bombs. The maximum and cruising speed were determined at 300 and 250 km / h, and the range was at least 1000 km. Particularly stipulated was a good view for the crew, reset, if necessary, landing gear and the possibility of landing the aircraft on the water.
Both companies put forward their projects and received an order for three experimental aircraft under the designations Ar.195 and Fi.167. Arado proposed a single-column biplane with rear-folding wings. The fuselage consisted of a steel truss, sheathed in the nose with removable panels of light alloy, and in the tail fabric. Two-spar wings of metal construction with light alloy skin. Engine nine-cylinder BMW-132M. The first experimental Ar.195V-1 (D-OCLN) began flying in the summer of 1938.
The designers of Arado paid special attention to the maximum simplification of the structure. The empty weight of Ar.195 was 1940 kg and was significantly less than that of its predecessor Ar.95B (2232 kg). Nevertheless, the very first flights showed that the aerodynamic drag of the aircraft was clearly greater than the calculated one. As a result, flight characteristics did not even reach the minimum requirements of the task, and its competitor Fi.167 fully achieved the required characteristics. Tests of two more Ar.195s showed that it would not be possible to improve the performance of the aircraft without major changes in the design. Further work was stopped.
Armament. One 7.9 mm fixed MG-17 machine gun with 300 rounds for forward firing and one 7.9 mm MG-15 machine gun on a mobile mount with 600 rounds; one 700 kg torpedo or 500 kg aerial bomb or 50 kg + 4 x 50 kg bombs