Aviation of Word War II

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Ju 88. Assessment by British Experts.

On the night of 23-24 July 1941, the Ju-88A-6 "4D + DH" from I./KG-30 got lost during the raid on Birkenhead. The plane's crew mistakenly mistook the Bristol Canal for the English Channel and, running out of fuel, landed at the nearest airfield, which turned out to be RAF Lalsgate Bottom, near Whiston Super Marie. The pilot landed well on extended landing gear, providing the RAF with a serviceable Ju-88 bomber.

In the British Air Force, the aircraft received registration "EE205". The bomber underwent evaluation tests at Duxford, after which the aircraft entered the 1426th flight (enemy aircraft) at Collyveston base. It stayed here until January 1945, when the 1426th link was disbanded. Then the car was transferred to the Central Aviation Organization in Tengmir, then to the 47th repair unit in Sealand for preparation for museum storage. The further fate of the aircraft has not been clarified.

Below is the test report of the JU-88A-6 "EE205" aircraft.

Brief Description of the Aircraft

The Junkers Ju-88 aircraft is a twin-engine midwing plane with JUMO-211 engines with a capacity of 1200 hp each. each. The aircraft is capable of lifting bombs with a total mass of 2903 kg; the range with such a bomb load is 885 km. The maximum flight range with a bomb load of 500 kg is 3540 km. The aircraft is equipped with brake flaps that provide a dive with an angle of up to 70 degrees. The aircraft is equipped with an autopilot and a second set of controls that the bombardier can use. Among other equipment, the anti-icing system of propellers and empennage, the ability to install devices for cutting the cables of barrage balloons deserve attention.

Cockpit

The crew of four is housed compactly at the front of the fuselage. The pilot and the top gunner, who will also serve as the wireless operator, are seated in comfortable seats with ample work space. However, the living conditions for the bombardier and the bottom gunner, who is in the gondola, are far from comfortable. The bottom gunner cannot stay with the machine gun for more than an hour; he rests on a small seat installed above his position according to the combat schedule. The bombardier, if not lying behind the bomber sight, occupies a very uncomfortable place next to the pilot. The bomber's site is too close to the pedals and bomb releases.

Weapon Stats

The small arms of the tested aircraft consist of four MG-15 7.9 mm machine guns on mobile mountings. Two of them are mounted in the upper rear part of the cockpit on individual rotating blister turrets equipped with bulletproof glass. The third machine gun is installed in the gondola with the barrel back. The fourth is in the frontal part of the cockpit canopy with a shift to the right. Ammunition for machine guns consists of 1650 rounds in 22 stores (75 rounds in the store). Stores are located on racks along the sides and in the rear of the cab, wherever on-board equipment is not installed.

Scopes

The sights of all machine guns are equipped with rings and front sight, the front sight is installed closer to the shooter's eye, the ring is at the end of the machine gun barrel.

Functionality

One machine gun was fired on the ground, three stern machine guns were tested in the air in flights over the sea. There were no delays in firing; recoil when firing was small at all angles of rotation of the machine guns. The rate of fire is 1000 rounds per minute, and very little smoke and flames are generated when firing. Approximately one in five rounds in the magazine is tracer, red. The rest are armor-piercing, incendiary and explosive. Night firing showed that the tracer practically will not interlock the shooter. The general impression of the machine guns: very simple and extremely effective. Magazine replacement time is five seconds.

Fire Sector

The upper rear firing point (two machine guns) has a satisfactory firing sector: +/- 75 degrees in azimuth and 35 degrees in elevation. The lower firing point has 40-degree sectors of fire to the left and right of the "dead zone", but it is easier to fire to the right than to the left, since the butt of the machine gun rests on the shooter's right shoulder. The maximum angle of descent of the machine gun is 30 degrees; firing at a target located behind the tail unit is impossible. The front machine gun has a very limited firing sector, it has to be fixed in a horizontal position, since the pilot is firing from it, although the control of the aircraft does not allow the pilot to concentrate on firing the machine gun.

Reservation

The crew is very well protected from attacks from behind. The entire rear of the cockpit is covered with armor and bulletproof glass up to the shooter's knees. The lower gunner is covered with an armor plate and a semicircular armor shield, which moves along with the machine gun, protecting the gunner's face. The pilot's seat is equipped with an armored headrest and an armored backrest. The lower part of the upper arrow seat is armored. The crew is also protected from rear shelling by sealed fuel tanks and radio equipment installed in the rear of the cockpit. All fuel and oil tanks are sealed, but the engines have no protection from shelling at all.



Tactical Tests. Flight Characteristics

Ju-88 is surprisingly maneuverable aircraft for its class, with such dimensions and wing loading. The control is easy, at high flight speeds it does not get stuck, it allows the aircraft to evolve even with a long dive. Having gained experience, the pilot can fight very well in such an aircraft. The aircraft, piloted by an experienced pilot, is a very difficult target for fighters. Ju-88 has a high maximum flight speed. In comparative tests with the Blenheim IV aircraft (both aircraft were not fully loaded), the Ju-88 showed a speed of 40 km / h higher at altitudes of 600 and 4600 m (2000 and 15,000 feet). The plane accelerates quickly on a dive. The brake flaps are easy to manufacture and very effective. When diving at an angle of 60 degrees, the indicated speed never exceeded 426 km. h, the control of the aircraft was maintained all the time, which made it possible to adjust the aiming. The withdrawal from the dive is carried out automatically.

The aircraft can be easily trimmed by hand. Instrument piloting is comfortable. Night flights were not performed during the tests, but the illumination of the instruments is very convenient, there are no reflections from the glazing of the instrument scales. It is difficult to perform level flight with one engine running, the aircraft begins to lose altitude at an indicated speed of 267 km / h (160 mph). It is very difficult to make turns with one engine running. Nevertheless, an experienced pilot can always reach his territory on one engine.

Overview

The view from the pilot's seat does not meet our standards. The pilot sits very high, his head almost touching the cockpit canopy. The pilot has a good view only forward and to the left. The view to the right limits the machine gun and the cover of the cockpit canopy. The pilot's seat is located behind the planes of rotation of the propellers, so the view over the engines on the Ju-88 is better than on the Blenheim. The cockpit canopy is made of flat panels, so the image is not distorted by glazing. The top shooter has a good all-round view, but only in the upper hemisphere, the bottom shooter is responsible for the view of the rear lower hemisphere. If the bombardier is not in the nose of the fuselage, the lower forward hemisphere is the "blind spot".

Flying in the ranks

The Ju-88 easily holds the formation due to the very good throttle response of the engines. However, the follower must keep at the same height with the leader or lower directly behind him, since the air currents thrown by the propellers of the leader's plane force the follower's plane to descend and knock him off course.

Combat Maneuvering Overall Assessment

The Ju-88 aircraft took part in training air battles with the Spitfire I and Hurricane II fighters. Cinema cameras were installed on the fighters. The Ju 88 flew without a bomb load with a total mass of 10,206 kg (22,000 lb).

The attack of the fighter in all cases can be repelled by only one machine gun mounted on the Ju-88. Accurate firing from a machine gun is difficult due to the fact that the machine guns are manually controlled.

Tail Attack

A tail attack is almost impossible for a fighter. The top gunner has a very good chance to change from the right to the left machine gun and vice versa before the fighter moves to the left or right of the vertical tail. The lower arrow completely covers the sectors of the rear hemisphere, inaccessible for firing from the upper machine guns. When flying in one plane, the fighter is easily hit from the bomber's upper machine guns. The attack should be made from a position just below the stabilizer. Since the rear of the cockpit is well armored, 7.7 mm machine guns should only be fired at the engines.

Ju-88 evasive maneuvers include gliding, wavy flight, diving, and cornering. Slip is usually easy for an attacking fighter pilot to detect, but the bomber's undulating motion poses a serious problem when aiming for a fighter pilot. During the short-term negative acceleration that occurs in such a flight, the engines of the Ju-88 aircraft continue to work, while the engine of the Spitfire is turned off. The fighter should be above the bomber's flight path.

The analysis of air battles made it possible to establish the main evasive maneuvers used by the Ju-88 aircraft. The Ju 88 climbed 4572 m (15,000 ft), with the Spitfire and Hurricane a mile behind. Then Junkers dived at full throttle, losing 457 meters per minute. "Spitfire" managed to reach the range of opening fire, losing 2438 m of height and flying 32 km. The attacking Hurricane should approach the Junkers a little closer than the Spitfire. The maximum indicated speed of the Ju-88 was 491 km / h. The rudder control remained very light all the time, and the rear gunner had a good view at all times.

The Ju-88 can also dodge a bend attack, especially in cloudy conditions. The aircraft can turn easily even when flying at high speed. It is very difficult for a fighter to keep sight of a bomber performing a turn. The Ju 88's steering makes it easy to change the radius of the bend or to perform a slip corner.

Attack from the Camera Angle and from the Side

The cockpit and the aircraft itself are almost unprotected from side attacks. The fighter, armed with 7.7 mm machine guns, is capable of inflicting heavy damage on the aircraft when firing from a 45 to 30 degree angle. The upper gunner is able to quickly throw the machine gun for defensive fire in a direction almost perpendicular to the plane, but the firing sectors of the lower machine gun are limited to 40 degrees to the right and left. It is more convenient for the lower arrow to fire towards the left side, therefore it is preferable to attack from the starboard side from a position just below the bomber. The pilot is seated to the left, so an attack to the port side is also preferable.

Head-on Attacks

Ju-88 is absolutely unprotected from frontal attacks; large ring radiators of engines are especially good targets. A head-on attack is ideal if the bomber crew does not detect the fighter, otherwise a head-on attack is simply impossible due to the high top speed of the Ju-88. The forward firing sector of the Ju-88 is very limited and difficult to use, as the pilot has to be distracted from the control of the aircraft. It is more convenient for the pilot to fire from the machine gun to the left than to the right.

Ju-88 as a Dive Bomber

Ju-88 dives at angles of 50-60 degrees using brake flaps. A dive attack by an aircraft is possible, but a fighter can itself come under machine-gun fire when a bomber is taken out of a dive. Better to attack the diving Ju-88 in a downward spiral. The Ju-88 can effectively use the brake flaps to perform the dive evasive maneuver.

Slide

Gliding is not an effective way to dodge an attack. The fighter, being 100 yards (91 m) behind the tail of the bomber, easily compensates for slip and is capable of aimed fire.

Flying at low altitude and low speed

The Ju-88 maintains controllability up to a speed of 160 mph (257 km/h) and is suitable for strikes from low altitudes.

Night Fighter Attacks

Our fighters usually attack in the tail below the firing sector of the lower shooter

Construction Description

Twin-engine all-metal cantilever monoplane with retractable landing gear.

Fuselage - trapezoidal duralumin. The fuselage frame consisted of 33 Z-shaped frames, connected by 6 T-shaped spars, reinforced with semicircular stringers.

Technologically, the fuselage was assembled from two halves: upper and lower, joined by riveting. From above it was covered with smooth sheets of duralumin. The fuselage can be divided into three parts: front, middle and rear. In the front part, the crew cabin was located, connected to the fuselage itself in the area of ​​the 9th frame. There were four crew members in the cockpit: the pilot - in the front left, the bombardier - in the front below, the gunner-radio operator - in the back and the gunner - in the ventral gondola. The cockpit was partially protected by armor. The pilot's armored seat protected him from the back and sides. The protection of the radio operator was made up of armor plates located in the rear of the cockpit and parts of the machine-gun carriage. On some aircraft, side armor plates were installed. The nose of the fuselage had faceted glazing - "beetle eye" - facilitating bombing and increasing the pilot's view. The rear of the canopy, along with machine-gun mountings and two side windows, had an emergency release, allowing the crew to quickly leave the vehicle. The front part of the lantern was tightly attached to the fuselage and had two opening windows. A machine gun was installed in the rear of the ventral nacelle, adapted for firing downward and backward. The carriage, together with the machine gun, was hinged, which made it possible to use the rear installation as a crew entrance hatch. To make it easier to climb into the cockpit, a stepladder was kept in the gondola. The front of the gondola ended with an inspection hatch for a bomb sight.

In the central part of the fuselage there were two bomb compartments: in the area of ​​the 9-12th frames - the front bomb bay, in the area of ​​the 12-15th frames - the rear. At the bottom of each bomb bay was a four-leaf hatch, which was opened by electric motors. In both bomb compartments, instead of bombs, additional fuel tanks could be installed. In this case, the hatch flaps were replaced with a single-leaf cover. In the upper part of the compartments, there were two load-bearing beams designed for hanging bombs or fuel tanks. On the 9th and 12th frames, transverse brackets for attaching the wing spars were installed.

At frame No. 15 there was a small hatch leading to the rear of the fuselage, where some of the aircraft's equipment were located. Between frames No. 20 and No. 23 at the top there was a container with an inflatable rubber boat for four, which could be removed by removing the single-leaf cover. To facilitate the conservation of instruments and prevent damage to the fuselage skin from the 15th to the 25th frames, there was a bridge attached to the edge of the frames. At the end of the fuselage, an emergency runner was installed at the bottom, which at the same time served as the neck of the emergency fuel drain system.

Wing - two-spar, trapezoidal with rounded ends, consisting of a center section and a console. The longitudinal rigidity of the wing was given by two main spars, one spacer auxiliary spar passing along the leading edge of the wing and one rear spar passing along the trailing edge. The lateral rigidity of the wing was given by 8 ribs (7 full and one with a cutout for the gas tank) connected by stringers in the form of ribs. The stringers were tightly attached to the structural wing skin made of duralumin sheets.

Reinforced ribs No. 1 and No. 2 simultaneously served as a support for the chassis, and in their front part there were attachment points for the engine mount. The entire wing was covered from above with a duralumin sheet, and from the bottom there was a nacelle, separated by a fire barrier from the wheel arch. The leading edge of the wing, up to the front spar, had a two-layer coating, hot exhaust gases were directed into the gap between the layers, preventing icing. Elements of the trailing edge of the wing were attached to the rear auxiliary spar.

A hydraulic drive for air brakes was attached to the lower surface of the wing, driven by an automatic dive exit.

Flaps - slotted, all-metal, covered with a smooth duralumin sheet. The flaps were hydraulically actuated through pushers. The flap extension system was driven by an engine installed in the fuselage in the area of ​​frame No. 12. The maximum flap deflection angle was 50 °. In order to reduce aerodynamic drag, movable strips, consisting of three parts, were located between the wing and the flap. The slats closed or opened the slot, depending on the position of the flaps. At the nacelle, a fairing made of duralumin sheet was riveted to the flaps.

Ailerons are slotted, metal with fabric sheathing, which, in the future, was replaced by metal. Both ailerons were balanced, with the left aileron trimmed. The ailerons were set in motion by a pusher system. With the flaps extended, both ailerons acquired a negative tilt angle (-15 degrees), while the ailerons retained their function.

The plumage is an all-metal structure with a metal supporting sheathing.

The horizontal tail is a two-spar cantilever symmetric profile, trapezoidal in plan with rounded edges. The leading edge was covered with a rubber de-icer into which hot air was blown. The horizontal tail was synchronized using a hydraulic system with flaps (they acquired an angle of -5 degrees, compared to the working position of -1 degrees.

The elevators, which were balanced, were attached to three loops. Both rudders had trim tabs. The elevators were controlled using a system of rods and rockers. The dive machine had a separate hydraulic drive.

The horizontal tail is a single-fin two-spar trapezoidal with rounded edges of a symmetrical profile. The elliptical rudder was hung on three loops. It was balanced and fitted with a trim tab. The rudder was controlled using a system of rods and rockers.

Chassis - classic with a rear support wheel. The main chassis is single-strut with spring damping from Kronprinz (KPZ). The rack was attached to the brackets located in the engine nacelle. Later (starting with the Ju 88A-4), they began to use the VQM chassis struts with hydropneumatic shock absorption. The chassis was retracted into the engine nacelles using a hydraulic system, while the chassis struts were rotated by 90 °, which made it possible to more compactly position the wheel inside the engine nacelle. The rear of the wheel arch was closed by two flaps, which opened only when the chassis was released or retracted, and were closed the rest of the time. Two more flaps were located in front of the wheel arch. These flaps covered the landing gear. When the landing gear was extended, the doors remained open. Wide-profile VDM or Elektron (EC) wheel rims with dual hydraulic disc brakes. Tires measuring 1140x410 mm. Track 5770 mm, tail wheel KPZ or EC 560x200 mm. The pressure in the wheels of the main landing gear is 4.2 atm (0.42 MPa), in the tail wheel - 3.75 atm (0.375 MPa).

Engines - two 12-cylinder liquid-cooled in-line engines (inverted "V") of the Junkers Jumo 211G-1 type with a capacity of 883 kW / 1200 hp. adapted to run on gasoline B4 (leaded aviation gasoline A2) with an octane rating of 87. The engines rotated three-blade metal VDM variable pitch propellers equipped with an anti-icing nozzle. Reservoirs with a de-icer with a capacity of 9 liters were located in the wing near spar No. 1 above the engine nacelles. LEF 25A fluid was used as an anti-icing agent.

Cooling - carried out by liquid (a mixture of water with ethylene glycol in a 1:1 ratio with the addition of 1.5% Schutzoel 39 anticorrosive agent). An equalizing tank, covered with a fairing, was located above the engine and was connected to a cylinder block and a five-segment radiator. One of the five segments played the role of an oil cooler. Forced circulation of liquid in the cooling system was carried out using two pumps. The volume of the cooling system is 75 liters for each engine.

The fuel system was very extensive. It consisted of two fuel tanks with a capacity of 415 liters each, located in the wings between the root rib and rib No. 1. Two more fuel tanks with a capacity of 425 liters each were located in the wing consoles between the 2nd and 4th ribs. In addition, in both fuselage bomb compartments it was possible to install additional fuel tanks (a tank with a capacity of 1220 liters was installed in the front bomb bay, and a tank with a capacity of 680 liters in the rear), which, for safety reasons, were equipped with an emergency fuel discharge system designed by F. Preschon. All tanks were self-sealing, and their total capacity could reach 3580 liters. To further increase the flight range, it was envisaged to use two suspended drop fuel tanks with a capacity of 900 liters each. The dropped tanks were made of impregnated plywood and mounted on bomb racks.

To start cold engines, there was a fuel mixture injection system containing a large fraction of unleaded volatile gasoline with the addition of 5% oil. A tank with this mixture with a capacity of 1.5 liters was located in the fuselage between the 7th and 8th frames. The SUM hand pump, located to the left of the pilot's seat, was used to inject the mixture. Starting the motors in polar conditions (at an ambient temperature below -30gr was carried out by pumping acetylene into the engine.

Fuel was supplied to the engines through a network of gas lines leading from the main tanks located in the wings. As the gasoline was consumed, it was pumped from additional tanks. In the engine nacelle, behind the firewall, there was a fuel filter and an emergency valve, which, if necessary, blocked the supply of fuel to the engines. Gasoline was supplied by gasoline pumps located near the engines. In addition, each internal fuel tank was equipped with its own KBP 16C fuel pump from DBU. From the hinged tanks, the fuel was supplied pneumatically. In the event of an accident, it was possible to pump fuel with a hand pump located in the cockpit near frame No. 8a.

The oil system - separate for each engine, consisted of two main self-sealing oil tanks with a capacity of 136 liters each (only 125 liters were filled in), located in the fenders between the 1st and 2nd ribs and one auxiliary oil tank with a capacity of 106 liters, common to both engines located in the left wing between the 4th and 5th ribs. Forced circulation of oil was carried out by gear pumps. The pumping of oil from the auxiliary oil tank was carried out manually using an oil pump located in the cabin in the area of ​​frames No. 8 and No. 8a.

The upper segments of the combined radiators were intended to cool the oil, and the oil flow into the radiator was controlled by a Roe 16 thermostat. All elements of the maelo system were connected by oil lines to filters and taps. Starting the engine in winter conditions was facilitated by filling the engine power system with a portion of oil warmed up to + 90 ° C, containing 7.5% gasoline at an ambient temperature of up to + 5 ° or 15% gasoline at lower temperatures.

Three grades of oil were used: Aego-Schell-mittel, Mobiloel-Rotring and Stanavo 100.

Hydraulics - consisted of circuits that ensure the operation of the automatic dive, as well as control of the horizontal stabilizer, landing gear, flaps and air brakes.

The circulation of the liquid was carried out by gear pumps that took power from the aircraft engines. An equalizing tank with a capacity of 10.8 liters (only 8.5 liters were poured in) was located in the fuselage between frames No. 8b and No. 9, an additional reservoir with a capacity of 5.1 liters was in the cockpit under the gunner's seat.

The main landing gear brakes also had a hydraulic drive, but the braking system was not connected to the rest of the aircraft hydraulics.

Electrical equipment - shielded, voltage 24 V. The current sources were two Bosch generators with a power of 2000 W, driven by aircraft motors, as well as a lead battery installed in the rear fuselage between frames No. 23 and No. 24. Access to the battery provided from the inside of the fuselage, through a door located in the area of ​​frame No. 15, and outside, through a hatch in the left side.

All circuits had automatic fuses, most of them were grouped on the right side of the cab. The connector for connecting an external current source was located on the right side of the fuselage at the bottom in the area of ​​frame No. 8a.

Oxygen equipment - consisted of 16 cylindrical oxygen cylinders with a capacity of 2 liters each, located inside the fuselage in the area of ​​frame No. 23. Through a system of reducers, valves and hoses, oxygen was supplied to the crew oxygen masks (4 pcs.). The percentage of oxygen in the air entering the masks depended on the flight altitude. The manometers of the pilot's and bombardier's breathing masks were located at the right wall of the cockpit, and the manometers of the radio operator's and gunner's masks were located directly on the breathing apparatus. The system was filled with oxygen through a common valve located outside on the right side of the fuselage in the area of ​​frame No. 21. The pressure in the completely filled cylinders was 150 atmospheres (15.0 MPa).

For ultra-long-range flights, it was possible to install additional 8 or 16 oxygen cylinders in the right wing in the area of ​​rib No. 5.

Radio equipment - consisted of a FuG 10 transceiver radio station, consisting of S 10K and S 10L transmitters, as well as E 10K and E 10L receivers, operating in the ranges of 300-600 kHz and 3000-6000 kHz. The antenna stretched between the mast on the cockpit canopy and the keel. In addition, a manufactured antenna up to 70 meters long was used, stored in the retracted position in the area of ​​frame No. 15. To power the radio equipment, the U 10 / S and U 10 / E converters were used. Instruments were placed in front of frame No. 8b. Communication between the crew members was provided by an EiV interphone connected to a FuG 10 radio station.

Navigation equipment FuBl 1 or FuBl 2 was used for landing in zero visibility conditions, using a two-dipole antenna located under the fuselage.

Equipment - Consisted of a complete set of navigation aids and control devices, most of which were grouped on the main instrument cluster. Along the left side of the cockpit, next to the pilot's seat, there was a panel with levers, rods and other control devices for aircraft components. The rest of the control devices were located at the starboard side. All Ju 88 aircraft were equipped with Siemens K 4ue autopilot.

A Walther flare pistol (flare gun) trigger was installed in front of the bombardier's place. providing missile launch from inside the cockpit. The stock of missiles was stored in two cassettes on the cockpit floor, near the starboard side. Some aircraft were equipped with four boxes of gas masks for the crew.

The set of rescue equipment included an inflatable rubber boat located in a container in the upper aft part of the hull between frames No. 23 and No. 23a. There was also a container with an emergency supply of food and water, a sail, oars and an emergency transmitter. The container is closed by the lid that can be opened from the cockpit. When the cover was removed, the boat was automatically filled with compressed air. Below, on the left side, in the area of ​​frame number 24, there was a first aid kit. In winter, emergency equipment was supplemented with sledges and additional rations.

In addition, the Ju 88s were equipped with equipment that allowed the aircraft to be escorted in tropical conditions. This equipment consisted of technical devices (air anti-dust filters, sealing gaskets, etc.), as well as a large supply of drinking water and hunting weapons. The aircraft equipped in this way were designated as Ju 88A-10.

Small arms - the Ju 88A-5 aircraft usually consisted of 4 Rheinmetall-Borzig MG 15 machine guns of 7.92 mm caliber, 29 double discs of 75 rounds each, distributed between three installations. Installation A - in front to the right of the pilot was serviced by a bombardier, installation B - in the rear of the cockpit consisted of two machine guns located on LLKP 2 armored carriages, served by a radio operator, and, finally, Unit C - in the ventral nacelle, equipped with a Bola 39C or Bola 39D VE armored belts and serving simultaneously as an entrance and emergency hatch for the crew.

The latest Ju 88A-5 aircraft were armed with Mauser MG 811 and MG 81Z machine guns (coaxial, installed in a gondola). For these machine guns, the corresponding carriages LLK 81VE (installation B) and Bola 81Z (installation C) were used. Machine guns MG 81 had a belt feed, the belts were stored in metal boxes.

In addition, most of the aircraft were additionally equipped with machine guns mounted in the front, near the bombardier site and along the sides of the cockpit. Often these machine guns were installed in combat units. Some vehicles received 20 mm MG FF cannons mounted in the front of the nacelle or in the front mount.

Bomb armament - was placed on the internal and external sling. Both bomb compartments housed four vertical bomb racks ETC 50 / X, allowing you to hang 32 bombs weighing 50 kg, for example SC 50.

Under each wing there were three assemblies (two between the fuselage and the engine nacelle and one on the wing console) mountings for ETC 500 / IXb bomb racks for 250 and 500 kg bombs, or for the Sch. 500/1000, while the use of only one, left, bomb rack was allowed. From October 1940 it became possible to suspend heavy loads under the right wing. Complex bomb racks were used to suspend 1000 kg bombs or LMA and LMB sea mines (Luftmine A and B).

Dropping bombs one by one or in a package was carried out with a RAB 14c or 14d assault rifle (Reihen-Abwurf-Bediengeraet). An emergency drop of all bombs was possible, which was carried out by moving a special lever.

To improve the accuracy of bombing, a BZG 2 or BZG 2L tachyometric bomb sight (operated by a bombardier) was used, coupled with an aiming and dive bombing system BZA (Bomben-Ziel-Anlage) and a Stuvi (Sturzvisier) sight (operated by the pilot who carried out the bomb release, pressing on the button on the steering wheel).

The bombsight system was synchronized with the automatic de-dive (Abfangautomatik), which was activated after dropping all the bombs. The automatic had an electro-hydraulic drive and acted on the air brakes and elevator trims.

This Ju-88G-1 accidentally landed at Woodbridge, the aircraft was undergoing RAF evaluation tests and received the British registration code "TP190".

Bibliography

  • "Air War" #2 Junkers. Ju 88