Aviation of Word War II

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Ju.89

Long Range Heavy Bomber

Junkers

Ju.89V1

In the summer of 1935 Dornier and Junkers received specifications for a long-range heavy bomber and did not share the initial concerns about the Uralbomber. In early autumn, three prototype aircraft were ordered, designated Do.19 and Ju.89. On the Junkers, work on the Ju.89 was led by Ernst Zindel, who widely used the experience gained in the creation of the Ju.86. Duralumin was used in the design, and chromium-molybdenum steel was used for loaded nodes. The fuselage was a monocoque square section, reinforced with frames and stringers, with an elliptical fairing on top. The wing consisted of five sections. The center section was carried out in one piece with the fuselage and had five spars. The inner section of the console had five main and two auxiliary spars, and the outer section had four main and three auxiliary. The flaps were of the "Junkers double wing" type and consisted of two sections. The main landing gear retracted hydraulically into the rear of the engine nacelle.

Ju.89V1

The power plant consisted of either four Junkers Jumo-211A engines or four Daimler-Benz DB-600A - 12-cylinder, liquid-cooled. A crew of nine was envisaged: two pilots, a radio operator, a scorer-flight engineer and five gunners. Defensive armament consisted of one machine gun in the forward fuselage, the same machine gun in the tail mount and cannons in the upper and lower hydraulically controlled double turrets. In the bomb bay, on a vertical suspension, 16 × 100kg or 32 × 50kg bombs could be placed.

The first two experimental aircraft - Ju.89-V1 and V2 were already in a high degree of readiness, when June 3, 1936. Lieutenant General Wefer died in a plane crash. The premature death of the main supporter of heavy bombers led to the arrival of Albert Kesselring to his post, who opposed the construction of strategic aviation at this stage in the development of the Luftwaffe, which was to the detriment of tactical aviation - this was the main reason for the termination of work on the Ju.89 and its competitor Do.19 . However, the insistent demands of the Technical Department, represented by Bomber Aviation Inspector General Kurt Pflugbeil, made it possible to continue work on experimental machines. At the same time, the entire program of the "Uralbomber" was revised. Tsindel had doubts about the possibility of continuing the Uralbomber program, since a revision of the requirements led in November 1936. (just a few weeks before the first flight of the Ju.89-V1) to the emergence of new specifications for the so-called "A" bomber. As a result, the chief designer made a request to use the Ju.89-VЗ units for the manufacture of a commercial transport aircraft. Five months later, the Uralbomber program was finally terminated.



Ju.89 V-2 Specification
Crew 3
Dimensions
Wing span, m 35.30
Wing area, m² 184.00
Length, m 26.50
Height, m 7.60
Powerplant
4 × PE Dymer-Benz DB-600A, hp 4 × 960
Masses, kg
Empty 17,000
Loaded 22,820
Maximum takeoff 27,825
Performance
Maximum speed, km/h over ground 347
at altitude 384
Service ceiling, m 7,000
Service range, km 1,985
Armament
1 × 7.9 mm MG-15 machine gun in the right side of the nose glass, one MG-15 in the tail mount,
one 20mm MGFF cannon in the upper and lower hydraulically controlled turrets. Ищьиыб лп
1,600
Photo Description
Drawing Ju.89V-1

Drawing Ju.89V-1

Ju.89-V1 (D-AFIT) flew in December 1936. It was equipped with four Jumo-211A 1075 hp engines. at 2300 rpm and screws "Junker-Hamilton". During the tests, some exchange rate instability was revealed. Therefore, plumage washers increased in area. At the same time, additional air intakes were installed under the external engines. Ju.89-V2 (D-ALAT) began testing in early 1937. It was distinguished by the installation of four DB-600A engines with an HP 960 power each. at 2350 rpm and VDM screws. By this time, work had already begun on converting the third Ju.89-V3 into a transport Ju.90. VZ was supposed to receive mock-ups of the Mauser's two-man turrets, and they were already mounted on the aircraft when permission was received from the RLM to use the wings, engines, landing gear and empennage for the production of the Ju.90-V1.

Flight testing of the Ju.89-V1 and V2 continued until the official termination of the program on 29 April 1937. Both served for testing as part of work on a commercial aircraft. In the summer of 1938 the Ju.89-V1 set two records for lifting loads to a height (5000kg at 9318m and 10000kg at 7246m), although it was claimed that the records were set on the Ju.90-V1. In fact, the Ju.90-V1 crashed on February 6 - four months earlier during a flutter test. For this, an auxiliary engine with 400hp was installed in the tail section, which drove the vibrator. It was the loss of control over it that led to an uncontrolled oscillatory regime and an accident. Later, the experimental aircraft were converted into transport aircraft and were used in this form during the landing in Norway as part of KG.z.b.V.105.

Bibliography

  • Luftwaffe aviation /V.N. Shunkov/
  • Luftwaffe combat aircraft / Ed. David Donald/
  • Wings of the Luftwaffe (warplanes of the Third Reich) /William Greene/