Aviation of World War II

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Designers of Aircraft Engines

Mikulin Alexander Alexandrovich

Mikulin Alexander Alexandrovich

Soviet designer of aircraft engines, academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1943), major general engineer (1944), Hero of Socialist Labor (1940). Studied at the Moscow Higher Technical School, student of N.E. Zhukovsky. From 1923 he worked at the Scientific Automotive Institute (from 1925 chief designer), from 1930 at CIAM, from 1936 at the Aviation Engine Plant named after V.I. M.V. Frunze. In 1935-55. taught at MVTU and VVIA. At the beginning of the 30s. under the leadership of Mikulin, the first Soviet liquid-cooled aircraft engine M-34 was created, on the basis of which a number of engines of various capacities and purposes were later built. The engines of the M-34 (AM-34) type were equipped with the record ANT-25 aircraft, TB-3 bombers and many other aircraft. The AM-35A engine was installed on MiG-1, MiG-3 fighters, TB-7 (Pe-8) bombers. During the war Mikulin supervised the creation of forcing the AM-38F and AM-42 engines for the Il-2 and Il-10 attack aircraft. In 1943-55 g. Mikulin is the chief designer of the experimental aircraft engine-building plant No. 30 in Moscow.

Klimov Vladimir Yakovlevich

Klimov Vladimir Yakovlevich
(1892 – 1962)

Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Hero of Socialist Labor, laureate of the USSR State Prize, engineer major general.

V.Ya. Klimov studied at the laboratory of automobile engines, which was headed by Academician E.A. Chukadov.

From 1918 to 1924, he was the head of the laboratory of light engines at the NAMI NTO USSR, taught at the Moscow Higher Technical School, the Lomonosov Institute and the Air Force Academy.

In 1924, he was sent to Germany for the purchase and acceptance of the BMW-4 engine (in the licensed production of the M-17).

From 1928 to 1930. he is on a business trip to France, where he is also purchasing the Jupiter-7 engine from the Gnome-Rhone company (in the licensed production of M-22).

From 1931 to 1935, Vladimir Yakovlevich heads the department of gasoline engines of the newly created IAM (later VIAM) and heads the department of engine design at the MAI. In 1935, as Chief Designer of Plant No. 26 in Rybinsk, he was sent to France to negotiate the acquisition of a license for the production of a 12-cylinder, V-shaped Hispano-Suiza 12 Ybrs engine, which was designated M-100 in the USSR. The development of this engine - the VK-103, VK-105PF and VK-107A engines during the war years were installed on all Yakovlev fighters and on the Petlyakov Pe-2 bomber. At the end of the war, Klimov developed the VK-108 engine, but it never entered mass production.

Shvetsov Arkady Dmitrievich

Shvetsov Arkady Dmitrievich
(1892 - 1953)

Soviet designer of aircraft engines, Doctor of Technical Sciences, (1940), Lieutenant General of the Engineering Service (1948).

Born on January 12 (24), 1892, in the village. Lower Sergi, now the Sverdlovsk region. In 1921 he graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School.

In 1925-1926, in collaboration with the metallurgist N.V. Okromeshko, he creates a five-cylinder radial aircraft engine M-11, which, according to the test results, wins the competition for an engine for training aircraft and becomes the first domestic serial air-cooled aircraft engine.

In 1934 he was appointed Chief Designer of the Perm Engine-Building Plant (1934).

In the period from 1934 to 1953, under the leadership of A.D. Shvetsov, a family of air-cooled piston engines was created, covering the entire era of development of this type of engine, from the five-cylinder M-25 with a capacity of 625 hp. up to 28-cylinder ASh-2TK with a capacity of 4500 hp Engines of this family were installed on aircraft of Tupolev, Ilyushin, Lavochkin, Polikarpov, Yakovlev, which made a decisive contribution to the conquest of air supremacy in the Great Patriotic War. Engines with the ASh brand (Arkady Shvetsov) have served with great benefit and still serve in peacetime.

In the 30s. under the leadership of Shvetsov, the engines M-22, M-25, M-62, M-63 were created for the I-15, I-16, and others; in the 40s. - a number of piston radial air-cooled engines of sequentially increasing capacities of the ASh family: ASh-62IR (for Li-2, An-2 transport aircraft), ASh-82, ASh-82FN (for La-5, La-7 fighters, Tu- 2, passenger aircraft Il-12, Il-14), engines for the Mil Mi-4 helicopter, and others. Shvetsov created a school for designers of air-cooled engines.

Hero of Socialist Labor (1942). Laureate of the Stalin Prizes (1942, 1943, 1946, 1948). He was awarded 5 Orders of Lenin, 3 other orders, as well as medals. Gold medal "Hammer and Sickle", five Orders of Lenin, Order of Suvorov, 2nd degree, Order of Kutuzov, 1st degree, Order of the Red Banner of Labor, medal "For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945."

Died March 19, 1953 in Moscow.