Aviation of Word War II

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G.12
Medium Transport Aircraft
Fiat

Fiat G.12

The G.12 all-metal transport aircraft was a low-wing design with three radial engines, one of which was installed in the nose and the other two in wing nacelles. The engines rotated three-blade variable-pitch propellers. The main landing gear was retracted into the nacelles, the tail wheel was fixed.

The G.12 was designed as a civilian aircraft, but during the war it was used mainly in military service.

Established in the fall of 1942, the air bridge between Italy and North Africa collapsed literally before our eyes. The most difficult days for the transport aviation of the Axis countries began in March 1943. So, on April 5, during a series of B-17 raids, 14 transport aircraft burned down at the airfields of Palermo and Trapani. On the same day, 11 SM.82 and 5 Fiat G.12, barely having time to arrive at the Tunisian airfield of El Aouin, were hit by bombs from 20 American B-24 bombers. On the airfield, two Savoyes and three Fiats were immediately destroyed. 12 more German aircraft were also damaged, 8 of which could not be restored. April 19 was a "doomsday" for the G.12 - after taking off from an Italian airfield, a mixed group of one SM.75 and 12 SM.82 and G.12 failed to reach the Tunisian coast, losing all aircraft on approach. The second group of 18 Italian and German transport aircraft tried to cover 12 MS.200 and MS.202, but here, too, luck turned away from them. During the battle with allied fighters, 7 more vehicles were shot down. The heavily thinned Italian transport aviation could not bear such losses, although flights to Africa continued until May 1943, when the situation of the troops remaining there became hopeless.

With the division of Italy in September 1943 into two states, the G.12s continued to serve both sides, and after the war, the surviving G.12 aircraft were used by the Italian Air Force as courier transport.

By the time production was completed in 1949, a total of 104 aircraft of all modifications had been built.

After the war, the success of the G.12 inspired the G.212 "Flying Classroom", the last Italian transport aircraft with three engines and a crew of four.


FIAT | CR.25 | CR.32 | CR.42 | G.50 | G.55 | G.56 | Br.20 | RS.14 | G.12 | G.18 |


G.12 Specification
Crew 2-3
Dimensions
Wing span, m 26.80
Wing area, m² 113.50
Length, m 20.60
Height, m 4.90
Powerplant
3 х PE Fiat A.74 RC 42, power, h.p. 3 х 770
Weight, kg:
Empty 8890
Loaded weight 12800
Performance
Maximum speed, km/h 396
Cruising speed, km/h 308
Service range, km 1,740
Service ceiling, m 8,000
Payload, passengers 14
Photo Description
Drawing Fiat G.12LA

Drawing Fiat G.12LA

Fiat G.12C with three engines Fiat A.74 RC.42 S

Fiat G.12C with three engines Fiat A.74 RC.42 S, 3/4 front view

Fiat G.12C, powerplant, 3 engines FIAT A.74 RC.42 S

Fiat G.12C, motorcycle console

Fiat G.12C, instrument panel and left panel

Fiat G.12C, layout of cabins, fuselage compartments and emergency exits

Fiat G.12C, Main landing gear

Fiat G.12C, Wing console

Fiat G.12C, center section

Fiat G.12C, flaps

Fiat G.12C, aileron control

Fiat G.12C, cockpit

Fiat G.12C, radio operator's workplace

Modifications

  • G.12C - the first series of aircraft
  • G.12CA - passenger version with Alfa Romeo engines
  • G.12GA - transport aircraft with additional fuel tanks
  • G.12L is a variant with an extended fuselage.
  • G.12LB - variant with Bristol "Pegasus" 48 engines.
  • G.12LCA is a long-range civilian version with 750 hp Alfa Romeo 126 RC.34 engines. and a maximum take-off weight of 15475 kg; several aircraft were built for LATI ("Linee Aeree Transcontinental Italiane").
  • G.12LP - variant with Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S1C3-G engines.
  • G.12RT is the long range option.
  • G.12TR - conversion of the passenger G.12C, 30 seats and 10 on the floor, cargo hatch.
  • The G.12T is the main most massive military transport aircraft with 22 seats, from the 22nd aircraft it was armed with two 7.69 mm machine guns.
  • G.12 Gondar - Type T variant for long-haul flights with increased fuel capacity, without weapons.
  • G.12TR-GA - converted passenger G.12GA into tanker aircraft

Bibliography

  • Encyclopedia of Military Equipment / Aerospace Publising /
  • Aeroplano FIAT G.12C serie II (Motori FIAT A.74 RC.42 S) /Ministero dell' Aeronautica Torino/