Medium Transport Aircraft
The G.12 all-metal transport aircraft was a low-wing design with three radial engines, one of which was installed in the nose and the other two in wing nacelles. The engines rotated three-blade variable-pitch propellers. The main landing gear was retracted into the nacelles, the tail wheel was fixed.
The G.12 was designed as a civilian aircraft, but during the war it was used mainly in military service.
Established in the fall of 1942, the air bridge between Italy and North Africa collapsed literally before our eyes. The most difficult days for the transport aviation of the Axis countries began in March 1943. So, on April 5, during a series of B-17 raids, 14 transport aircraft burned down at the airfields of Palermo and Trapani. On the same day, 11 SM.82 and 5 Fiat G.12, barely having time to arrive at the Tunisian airfield of El Aouin, were hit by bombs from 20 American B-24 bombers. On the airfield, two Savoyes and three Fiats were immediately destroyed. 12 more German aircraft were also damaged, 8 of which could not be restored. April 19 was a "doomsday" for the G.12 - after taking off from an Italian airfield, a mixed group of one SM.75 and 12 SM.82 and G.12 failed to reach the Tunisian coast, losing all aircraft on approach. The second group of 18 Italian and German transport aircraft tried to cover 12 MS.200 and MS.202, but here, too, luck turned away from them. During the battle with allied fighters, 7 more vehicles were shot down. The heavily thinned Italian transport aviation could not bear such losses, although flights to Africa continued until May 1943, when the situation of the troops remaining there became hopeless.
With the division of Italy in September 1943 into two states, the G.12s continued to serve both sides, and after the war, the surviving G.12 aircraft were used by the Italian Air Force as courier transport.
By the time production was completed in 1949, a total of 104 aircraft of all modifications had been built.
After the war, the success of the G.12 inspired the G.212 "Flying Classroom", the last Italian transport aircraft with three engines and a crew of four.