Aviation of Word War II
Aircraft La-9, La-11 leave in time for the period of the Second World War. However, prototypes of aircraft were created during the war, at the same time, in 1944, the first Lavochkin aircraft with a laminar wing was created. * That is why we posted a description of these aircraft in the Lavochkin aircraft section.
The best Soviet fighter during the war, the La-7, had a significant drawback - almost the entire glider, with the exception of the wing spars, was made of wood. The structure, subject to decay, unsuitable for long-term storage in the open air, constantly presented "surprises", putting the whole subdivisions of non-combat-capable machines on hold. There was only one way out - to replace wood with metal.
The first instance of the "130" fighter was built in January 1946 at plant number 21, which produced La-7. Factory tests were completed in May 1946. According to the test results, it was noted:
the technique of performing aerobatics on the "130" aircraft is the same as on the La-7. The aircraft is available to intermediate-skilled pilots.
Due to the absence of slats, the unpleasant moment of their asynchronous exit disappeared, which is reflected in the pilot's stick and the behavior of the aircraft, which takes place on the La-7 on which the slats are installed.
The aircraft parachutes up to a speed of 170 km / h. The aircraft behavior during the spin is similar to the La-7 aircraft ...
In terms of range and duration of flight in the most advantageous mode, the aircraft "130" has a significant advantage over the La-7, Yak-3 and Yak-9U aircraft, which made it possible to use it to escort short-range bombers to their full range subject to a further increase in the fuel supply.
In terms of the power of the firing salvo, the 130 aircraft has a significant superiority over the La-7, Yak-3 and Yak-9U aircraft. The aircraft "130" can perform combat missions during the day up to the practical ceiling, as well as in adverse weather conditions. The aircraft is not equipped for night flights, which limits its combat use.
In air combat on horizontal and vertical maneuvers at altitudes of 2000-6000 m, aircraft "130" and La-7 are equivalent. Within 20-25 minutes of the battle, they can go into each other's tail at the range of aimed fire ...
In air combat with the Yak-3 aircraft on a horizontal maneuver at altitudes of 3000-5000 m, the latter has a slight advantage over the "130" aircraft. On left and right bends, the Yak-3 aircraft enters the tail of the 130 aircraft at a distance of 200-300 m through 5-6 bends. On vertical maneuver at altitudes of 3000-5000 m, the Yak-3 aircraft also has an advantage over the 130 aircraft.
"130" had a significantly better view from the cockpit compared not only with the La-7, but also with the German FV-190 and the American Thunderbolt fighter.
From the La-7, the fighter "130" has little left. First of all, the new aircraft was of an all-metal construction, which allowed to reduce the weight of the airframe. The wing became single-spar with torsional skin. Like the La-7, it consisted of a center section and two consoles. Transverse V angle - 6 degrees. Landing flaps with a deflection angle of up to 60 degrees, located between the fuselage and ailerons. The shields were covered with an electron 1.2 mm thick. The release and removal of the flaps was carried out using hydraulic drives.
The laminar wing profile with its improved coupling with the fuselage due to the installation of fairings, or as they were then called feringov, contributed to a decrease in drag.
Improved the temperature regime of the cockpit by sealing it and the compartment of the power plant, as well as adjusting the intake of air supplied to the engine from a special intake.
A radial air-cooled engine ASh-82FN with a two-speed supercharger and a three-blade propeller VISH-105V-4 with a diameter of 3.1 m was used as a power plant. The oil cooler was located under the fuselage in a tunnel, at the exit of which there was an adjustable damper.
The all-metal design of the airframe made it possible to reduce the number of gas tanks to five with a total capacity of 850 liters (on a prototype they could hold 825 liters).
* Laminar wing profile - profile with an elongated laminar boundary layer zone. The transition point of the laminar boundary layer to the turbulent one near the laminar wing profile is shifted far backward (60-70% or more of the chord from the leading edge). This results in a significant reduction in the minimum drag coefficient compared to conventional profiles. The main difference in the geometric shape of the laminar wing profile is the backward shift of the maximum profile thickness and a thinner nose.
* Forcing of the engine during 10 minutes.
The aircraft was equipped with four NS-23 synchronous cannons with 300 rounds of ammunition. Fire control - pneumo-electric, which made it possible to conduct both separate firing from two upper or two lower guns, and salvo from all barrels. On serial machines, the PBP (V) type sight, installed under the canopy of the canopy, was replaced with the ASP-1N. An interesting fact. The ASP-1N optical sight (factory designation 97-P), created in OKB10, was a copy of the British MK-2D, which was used on fighters supplied to the USSR during the war.
In addition to the standard flight and navigation equipment and engine control devices, the aircraft had an RSI-6 transmitter and an RSI-6M receiver, an RPKO-10M radio compass and a friend or foe transponder SCH-ZM. On board was an oxygen device with a 4-liter oxygen cylinder.
In 1946, the aircraft was put into serial production at Plant No. 21 under the designation "Product 48" ("Type 48"). In parts, he received the official name La-9.
The first 4 production vehicles were built by the plant in August 1946. In 1947, the first 30 vehicles were sent for military trials.
The aircraft was constantly being improved. Only in 1948, 197 changes were introduced into its design, which improved the quality of the machine.
During serial construction from 1946 to 1948, 1559 combat vehicles were produced. Of these, in 1946 - 15, in 1947 - 840 and in 1948 - 704 aircraft.
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The training fighter, which initially received the designation La-9V (export), was distinguished by a two-seat cockpit with duplicate flight and navigation instruments and VMG control devices, dual aircraft and engine controls, as well as a non-retractable crutch wheel. The number of gas tanks was reduced to three, retaining one NS-23 gun with 100 rounds of ammunition.
Additionally, equipment for night flights, curtains for instrument flight training in the front cockpit, a photo installation for planned shooting, an intercom and a device for towing a cone were installed.
In May 1947, the La-9V passed factory tests, having completed 8 flights, and on June 2, state tests began. The lead engineer and co-pilot at this stage of testing was V.I. Alekseenko, the lead pilot was I.M. Dziuba.
Like any new technique. La-9V had a number of defects and shortcomings. However, this did not prevent in the conclusions of the "Act ..." based on the results of state tests, to note that the aircraft "according to flight and flight performance data, as well as in terms of equipment, can be widely used in schools and units of the Air Force as a training fighter for flight crew education and training.
In terms of flight performance, stability and controllability, the aircraft is similar to the single-seat combat aircraft La-9 with the ASh-82FN engine and is available to pilots of medium qualification for piloting both from the front and rear cockpit..."
Since April 1948, serial production of "sparks" began at plant No. 99 in Ulan-Ude under the designation UTI-La-9 (UTI La-9, product "49"). In the same year, car No. 49990609 was transferred to the Air Force Research Institute for control tests.
After their completion, the aircraft was transferred to the 301st plant for improvements. On the Spark, the cannon was replaced with a UBS-12.7 machine gun. Instead of the ASP-1N sight, the ASP-3N was installed, as well as new lighting and fire-fighting equipment. The crutch was replaced with a new type La-11.
In this form, the aircraft passed state tests and was recommended for production. Pilot P.M. Stefanovsky and pilot engineer I.N. Sokolov were the leaders in the car.
In the conclusion of the "Act ...", according to the results of state tests, it was noted that "the use of the UBS (machine gun - ed.) allows the use of the aircraft for training flights with firing not only at ground targets, but also at air targets" . Indeed, when firing from a cannon, there was a high probability of hitting not only the target-cone, but also the towing vehicle.
Since 1947, the 99th plant has also produced combat vehicles. Testing of the first of them No. 01-01, assembled from parts of the 21st plant, began on July 9. The plant produced "sparks" with both UBS machine guns and NS-23 guns.