Aviation of Word War II
Pe-2I is an experienced two-seater daytime dive bomber. The official tactical and technical requirements of the Air Force for a high-speed dive bomber for 1944 provided for a bomb load of up to 2500 kg with its flight range of up to 1500 km and "the possibility of performing a combat mission by groups of bombers in the absence of fighter cover in the face of active opposition from enemy fighters". The most striking representative of this trend was the British Mosquito bomber, which was generally devoid of defensive weapons. However, Myasishchev, foreseeing the negative attitude of the leadership of the Soviet Air Force to the idea of an unarmed bomber, did not dare to completely abandon defensive weapons. In this regard, Vladimir Mikhailovich decided to leave two firing installations on the new version of the dive bomber: fixed by the pilot and the navigator, remotely controlled in the tail cock of the aircraft. Fortunately, many years of work on the DEU (remote electrified installation) were coming to an end.
Structurally, the Pe-2I was a cantilever all-metal monoplane with a mid-wing location, the area of which was increased by 1.2 m & # 178; (mainly due to sagging in the front of the center section). The design of the detachable wing parts did not differ much from the serially produced ones and did not require serious alterations of stands and technological equipment. VK-107A engines were installed in the nacelles, developing a power of 1500hp. from. at an altitude of 4500 m. Compared to the Pe-2F, the motors were displaced forward by 200 mm. The propellers were three-bladed, of the VISH-107TL5 type, with a diameter of 3.1 m. Individual exhaust pipes of the motors were placed in four rows - two rows on top and one on the side surfaces of the hoods. Fifteen gas tanks held a maximum of 1844 liters of fuel, which increased the practical range to 2275 km. The shift of the wing of the new profile to the middle position and the increase in the fuselage (by 1 m in length and by 300 mm in width) made it possible to place the FAB-1000M43 in the bomb bay (with a trimmed stabilizer). The landing gear of the aircraft was made according to the Pe-2 type, but with the same wheel dimensions, the struts of the main landing gear were reinforced taking into account the increased take-off weight.
The stabilizer, as well as on ordinary "pawns", was carried out mobile. Experimental Pe-2I did not have braking grids and a dive machine. Fifteen gas tanks held a maximum of 1,844 kg of fuel and were located in the center section, consoles, the middle of the fuselage and engine nacelles. All tanks were sealed. Oil tanks with a capacity of 160 liters were located in the engine nacelles. Water radiators were mounted in the nose of the center section, while oil coolers and suction pipes were mounted in the nose of the consoles. Unlike the serial Pe-2, the air outlet from the radiator tunnels was carried out downward, under the wing. At the exit from the tunnels, electromechanically controlled dampers were installed, which ensured effective regulation of the water temperature (the blinds on the serial "pawns" did not work well). The aircraft had a neutral gas system.
The aircraft crew consisted of two people - a pilot and a navigator. The well-shaped cockpit canopy provided the pilot with a comfortable landing and excellent visibility. The fixed UB-20 cannon (on the prototypes, the 12.7 mm UBK machine gun was retained instead of it) was placed under the pilot's seat, which excluded his glare during night shooting - the flame from the shots covered the nose of the aircraft. The remotely controlled UBK machine gun was installed in the tail spinner and provided firing angles upwards - 18°, downwards - 12° and left-right - 16 ° each. Its cartridge box held a tape with 100 rounds. The electromechanical system provided tracking by the machine gun barrel of the sighting line. Although the firing angles of the mobile unit were relatively small, given the high speed of the bomber, they were calculated to provide satisfactory rear protection. When catching up, an enemy fighter could line up for an attack in a relatively small corner sector. However, military experts were skeptical about the estimated estimates and preferred to wait for the results of air battles with captured German fighters.
Protection of the aircraft crew from enemy fire included an armored backrest, a headrest and an armored pilot's seat, as well as two vertical plates that covered the navigator, that is, it did not radically differ from that used on the serial Pe-2. Additional defensive capabilities were provided by two DAG-10 aircraft grenade holders, which proved their effectiveness at the front.
Pe-2I, second experienced
At the end of May 1944, the State Defense Committee adopted decree No. 5947, according to which the plant No. 22 was instructed to produce a small series (5 vehicles) Pe-2I by October 15, 1944. However, this decree was not fulfilled. The main reasons were, firstly, the reluctance of the leadership of the NKAP and the plant to reduce the volume of production of conventional Pe-2 and, secondly, the difficulties in mastering the serial production of VK-107A engines, which were primarily intended for Yak-9U fighters.
In January 1944, by order of the NKAP No. 22, the construction of the third copy of the Pe-2I in the version of a heavy fighter was ordered. The use of very powerful offensive weapons was envisaged: it was planned to install two NS-45 cannons in the ventral battery with a stock of 45 rounds per barrel. In November 1944, a cannon carriage and a stand for debugging the entire installation were manufactured and sent to Moscow to plant number 482. The chief designer decided not to build a third prototype aircraft, but to mount a battery on the lead serial Pe-2I. However, immediately after its manufacture, this machine became the object of the picky attention of the military representatives of plant number 22, who revealed a lot of defects on it and demanded their elimination. None of the released Pe-2Is was brought to a combat readiness state until June 1945 and was not paid for by the Air Force, so all further work on the fighter version gradually came to a standstill.
|Wing span, m||17.18||18.11|
|Wing area, m²||40.50||43.80|
|2 × PE VK-107A, takeoff power, hp||2 × 1,650||2 × 1,550|
|Maximum speed near the ground, km/h||556||531|
|Maximum speed at altitude km/h||656||627|
|Service ceiling, m||9,350||9,600|
|Service range, km||2,275||1,700|
Construction of the aircraft began on July 15 and was completed by November 2, 1945. Everywhere overfulfillment of planned targets was observed, and the simplified assembly technology contributed to the acceleration of assembly and assembly work in all shops of the enterprise under construction. Recall that V.M. Myasishchev was evacuated to Kazan in 1942 and replaced the chief designer A.I. Putilov, who worked on the Pe-2 series. After the death of V.M. Petlyakov, his place was temporarily taken by A.M. Isakson, continuing to lead the dive bomber series. When he ceased to cope with the frantic pace of work, he was removed from office and appointed the next successor to Petlyakov A.I. Putilov, whom by hook or by crook transferred A.N. Tupolev, having recommended Myasishchev in his place. From Kazan, where at the 22 plant Myasishchev still managed to achieve the required performance in the aircraft production, his design bureau was re-evacuated to Moscow, where a small area of the former plant No. 133 was allocated to designers and production workers. This fenced patch on Khodynka was named the plant No. 482. The design, model work and construction of future Myasishchev's aircraft began in parallel with the rebuilding of new high-quality hulls intended for design bureaus, laboratories, workshops and other factory services.
It is known that the fine-tuning of the M-107 engines on in the sharag of the plant # 288 Omsk was studied by D.L. Tomashevich. By 1944 he managed to do this due to powerful oil and water radiator groups. Then motors of this type went to experienced Pawns *...
At the end of 1945, the Myasishchevsky DIS entered flight tests, but the end of the war and the transition to jet technology determined the fate of the aircraft, which remained in a single copy.
* note - Pawn (Pe-shka)- that was the name the soldiers called the Pe-2 plane in the war.