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PS-35 (ANT-35)

Passenger Aircraft

Первый экземпляр ПС-35 (АНТ-35)
  • Passenger Aircraft
  • First flight: 1936
  • Arkhangelskiy

In the pre-war years, requirements for aircraft changed very quickly. The main emphasis was on speed, which is explained by the low percentage of Aeroflot passenger traffic. In 1934, when the design of the ANT-35 began, a competition for high-speed passenger aircraft was announced. According to the tactical and technical requirements, the maximum speed of vehicles of this class should be 400 - 420 km/h with other characteristics practically unchanged.

Receiving the task to develop a high-speed passenger vehicle coincided with the creation of the SB bomber, which showed a speed of 404 km in one of its flights /h. The head of the brigade, A.A. Arkhangelskiy, decided to make maximum use of the already tested units and components of the combat vehicle in the new aircraft.

On September 15, the ANT-35 aircraft, piloted by TsAGI chief pilot Hero of the Soviet Union comrade. M.M. Gromov, made a flight from Moscow to Leningrad and back in record time, covering a distance of 1266 kilometers in 3 hours 38 minutes with an average speed of 350 km/h. The plane had 7 crew and passengers on board.

In 1937, the aircraft under the designation PS-35 was put into production at plant No. 22 named after S.P. Gorbunova. Initially, it was planned to produce 150 vehicles, then their number was reduced to 50. But due to the expansion of production of SB bombers, this plan remained on paper. In total, 9 aircraft were built, including an experimental one.

After the successful first stage of flight testing of the ANT-35 (TsAGI-35), which made it possible to make a decision to demonstrate it at the XV Aviation Salon in Paris, the aircraft was transferred to a pilot plant for retrofitting the cabin, replacing the Gnom-Ron 14K engines with licensed M-85. In November 1936, the crew consisting of M.M. Gromov, co-pilot S.S. Korzinshchikov, navigator S.A. Danilin and mechanic Anikis, in difficult weather conditions, flew along the route Moscow - Konigsberg (Kaliningrad) - Cologne - Paris. At the exhibition, the ANT-35 received high praise. And this is not surprising. Of the ten transport aircraft on display, only the ANT-35 and the French Breguet 470-T had the best performance. The ANT-35 was not only distinguished by its high cruising speed. It could continue to fly on one engine, which increased flight safety. On this occasion, the English magazine Flight wrote: “Of the civil aircraft presented, the two Russian ANT-25 and ANT-35 are of greatest interest, which showed that Russia has made real technical progress over the past two years.”

Technical description. The aircraft was a twin-engine cantilever monoplane of the classical design with a low wing.

The two-spar wing consisted of a center section and two consoles. The TsAGI-40 wing profile has a relative thickness of 16% in the center section. The sheathing is metal, reinforced with stringers. Ailerons and landing flaps of the Northrop-Schrenk type with an electromechanical drive were suspended from the wing. In the center section there were two gas tanks with a capacity of 415 liters, and in the consoles there were two gas tanks of 470 liters and two oil tanks of 95 liters each.

The fuselage is semi-monocoque with working skin. The fuselage frame consisted of 45 frames, 8 beams and a longitudinal set, including spars, window profiles and stringers.

The passenger cabin, located between frames 10 and 29, was equipped with thermal and sound insulation. There was steam heating.

Chassis - two-post with a tail wheel, main retractable legs with semi-balloon wheels. The landing gear retraction mechanism is hydraulic type with electric signaling for retraction and release. The wheels are equipped with pneumatically controlled double-block brakes. The tail wheel is self-orienting and non-retractable. In winter, the aircraft could be mounted on skis.

The vertical tail consisted of a fin mounted on the fuselage and a rudder with horn compensation. The rudder casing on production aircraft is made of corrugated chain mail aluminum.

The horizontal tail consisted of a stabilizer and elevator. The stabilizer is uncontrollable, but to ensure balancing when changing wheels to skis, its installation angle on the ground could be changed within ± 2 degrees.

The propeller installation consisted of two M-62IR engines with VISH-2P variable-pitch propellers with two installation angles - takeoff and cruising.

The aircraft was equipped with a full set of flight and navigation equipment, including a radio compass and autopilot, allowing flights in adverse weather conditions.

Passenger Aircraft
PS-35 PS-84
Dimensions
Length, m 15.40 19.65
Height, m 3.77 5.17
Wing Span, m 20.80 28.81
Wing area, m² 57.80 97.10
Weights, kg
Empty 5460 7560
Takeoff weight 7,370 10,700
Powerplant
Engine 2 × M-62IR 2 × M-62IR
Takeoff power, hp 2 × 1000 2 × 1000
Performance
Max V, km/h above the ground 300
at altitude 374 320
Service ceiling, m 6,700 5,600
Service range, km 1,436 2,500
Payload
Number/kg pass. 10 14-21
cargo, kg   1988

In the period from 1938 to 1941, PS-35s were operated on the lines Moscow - Lvov (USSR-L2483), Moscow - Odessa, Moscow - Leningrad. On September 1, 1937, flights began on the Moscow-Riga-Stockholm line, then on the Moscow-Prague line. In particular, aircraft under the designations USSR-M131 and USSR-M134 were operated on foreign routes.

At the end of the 30s, the requirements for a passenger car changed again. In accordance with them, a license was purchased for the production of the Douglas DC-3 aircraft, which was built in our country under the symbol PS-84 (Li-2) and more fully met the requirements of Aeroflot and served until the end of the 70s. With the same engine power as the PS-35, it carried much more payload, although at a slightly lower speed.

During the Great Patriotic War, the PS-35, like all its brothers, “put on a military uniform.” Piloted by civil aviation pilots, they delivered urgent cargo and passengers to front-line airfields.

Photo Description
Drawing PS-35 (ANT-35) Drawing PS-35
PS-35 (ANT-35) PS-35 USSR L2483

Bibliography

  • "History of aircraft designs in the USSR, 1938-1950." /V.B. Shavrov/
  • " Passenger bomber /M-Hobby. Mikhail Maslov./
  • "Aircraft of the USSR" /V.E. Yudenok/