Aviation of World War II
Light Transport Aircraft
SAM-25 - first flight - 1943. A mechanized wing was installed on the six-seat SAM-25 aircraft, with the TsAGI R-2s profile, which had automatic slats and flaps. We installed the R-2s profile on all SAM-5 type aircraft, with which the aircraft had high aerodynamic characteristics. By the way, it is impossible not to take revenge that the well-known German three-seat communication aircraft Fisiler - "Storch" (Aist) had the same TsAGI profile - R-2s. Despite the significantly lower power of the M-11E engine compared to the Argus engine installed on a German aircraft = 240 hp. With. SAM-25 had a higher speed (230 km / h versus 180 km / h) and payload (505 kg versus 400 kg), and in terms of takeoff and landing characteristics it was inferior only in the takeoff distance due to the significantly lower thrust-to-weight ratio 8.6-5, 5 (8.6 kg/hp versus 5.5 kg/hp). However, with the same passenger load, the SAM-25 was not inferior to the Aist in the takeoff run. It was a good staff car and it received high marks at state tests in the Airborne Forces.
The SAM-25 aircraft, in terms of all its flight performance, was very much needed by the Airborne Forces. The command of the Airborne Forces entered with a proposal for 1944 to urgently launch aircraft into mass production at the plant N8 499, which had all the capabilities for this. SAM-25 was not more expensive than the Po-2 and Yakovlev aircraft with the same engine, but surpassed them with a significantly higher flight speed (Vmax \u003d 228 km / h), a much higher carrying capacity and, if necessary (with two crew members), could cover the distance without landing up to 4 thousand km. It was especially interesting for its takeoff and landing properties, not inferior in this to the more powerful German aircraft "Aist" (Fisiler-Storch).
At the end of May 1943, we received an urgent task to prepare 50 AM-14 airborne gliders, which were to be transferred to the Minsk region to the Belarusian partisans. Gliders must be equipped with devices for transporting fuel, weapons, including cannons. The lead time was tough. We had to do all this in 25 days. Comrade IV Stalin was personally interested in the solution of this problem.
In exactly the given time frame, the task was completed and the gliders were transferred first to Moscow, and then loaded to the partisans. And the matter was very serious. The strong anxiety that the partisans brought to the Nazis led the German command to the decision - to destroy the partisans at all costs. Selected units and traitors "Chaikovites" were thrown to solve this problem. They began with the systematic destruction of partisan villages and the inhabitants in them. Women, old people and children rushed to the forests to the rescuers. The partisans gathered a lot of sick, wounded and not combat-ready people. The partisans, burdened by the population, lost their mobility, there was not enough food, ammunition, weapons and medicines. Intelligence timely reported on the impending punitive operation of the Nazis, who pulled up tanks, infantry units and artillery.
Having assessed the situation, the High Command decided to urgently reinforce the partisans with command personnel, weapons and medicines. It was decided to accomplish this task with the help of landing gliders. Considering the threatening situation, Comrade Shcherbakov flew out to the partisans. After reviewing the situation on the spot, he decided to urgently help the partisans. The operation was well classified and for the Nazis was unexpected. The command and flight personnel of the Airborne Forces participated in the landing operation. I know the names of some of them - these are engineer P.V. Tsybin, pilots S. Anokhin, A. Dabakhov and others.
Before the onset of the punishers, Comrade Stalin ordered Comrade Shcherbakov to be taken out of the partisan detachment to the city of Moscow, who, due to the deterioration of the situation, in the absence of the necessary runways, could not get out on the available planes.
At that time, state tests of the SAM-25 M-11E aircraft were taking place at the Airborne Forces training ground. With the help of this aircraft, which had a long flight range and took off from a platform of about 40 meters, pilot A. Dabakhov ensured the flight of Comrade Shcherbakov to Moscow. In the aircraft form that I have preserved, there is a record of A. Dabakhov's flight to the partisans. In this operation, pilot S. Anokhin even managed to transport two seriously wounded partisans to the AM-14.
Operation with landing gliders, in which Gribovsky's gliders also participated. passed at night. Aircraft DB-Zf and Li-2 with two gliders each approached the partisan base at high altitude. Here the gliders unhooked and planned, passing a distance of up to 50-60 km. Fires and prepared grounds were waiting for them below. Everything went smoothly and on time. The result was a complete defeat of the punishers, who received a crushing rebuff during the attack.
For prompt assistance to partisans A. S. Yakovlev. O. K. Antonov. V. E. Gribovsky and I were awarded partisan medals of the first degree.
October 27, 2022.