Aviation of Word War II
Light Transport aircraft
Sche-2 (Light transport aircraft) - a high-wing tray with trapezoidal wing consoles, two 115 hp M-11D engines. with a spaced vertical tail, a large cargo compartment with a large door on the left side (1.43 × 1.64 m) of a well-streamlined fuselage. Chassis - fixed with fairings on wheels. The aircraft was designed to carry bulky cargo up to any engines, in-line and radial, weighing up to 1000 kg. This was necessary in war conditions for the maintenance of bases, when the requirements for the repair of combat aircraft were complicated by the constant movements of the repair bases during the offensive.
The structure is wooden with linen covering of the wing and tail, very light, for the sake of lightness in places and laborious. So, numerous stringers of a monocoque fuselage, pasted over with a canvas, were made in the form of miniature box-shaped spars with a section of 30×10 mm, with 1 mm walls and shelves-rails with an area of 4×8 mm, on glue and small nails. On the other hand, extraordinary lightness was achieved without sacrificing general and local strength. Destructive overload 5.85. Aerodynamic characteristic
Single-spar wing, 63.88 m ² area, landing gear struts - from La-5, wheels 600×180 and 300×125 mm, skis: 240×620 mm (1.42 m ²) and 800×380 mm (0, 24 m ²). Four gas tanks of 850 liters, welded from AMts. Motor mounts with rubber buffers.
The weight of an empty aircraft is 2210 kg, gasoline - 370 kg, oil - 40 kg, flight weight - 3400-3700 kg.
The history of the Sche-2 aircraft is as follows. At a small plant, aircraft were being repaired and a small series of containers under the wings of U-2 and R-5 aircraft were being built for the transport of small cargo. But it was necessary to transport fighter wings, whole engines, and there was an order for suspensions for air transportation of small anti-tank guns. The wings of fighters were transported under the wings of the R-5, but the aircraft could not carry the engines of the R-5. A. Ya. Shcherbakov - then the director and chief designer of the plant, and at the same time the head of the Main Directorate for the repair of aircraft of the NKAP was able to agree on the construction of a special cargo aircraft for the transport of bulky cargo, initially by order of naval aviation. In 1942, a project was presented and an aircraft was built under the TS-1 brand. In the summer of 1943, he successfully passed the tests, and in August it was decided to release a series under the Shche-2 brand. On October 3, 1943, production began at the Shcherbakov Design Bureau. The lead aircraft Sche-2 left in the summer of 1944.The series went on until the beginning of 1946.
The first released Sche-2 performed at least 20 flights on the Chkalov - Kuibyshev - Moscow route, showed a resource of up to 1000 hours. Sche-2 was widely used in units as transport (up to 16 people), cargo, ambulance (11 stretchers), landing (9 paratroopers), training for navigator training. There were five modifications of Sche-2: experimental (1942), serial cargo and ambulance (1944), navigational (1944), agricultural (1945) and even with OMS diesel engines taken from an American tank (1945 .). There was a lightweight version with a reduced wing (55 m ² instead of 64 m ² with the same tail area of horizontal 10.14 m ² and vertical 5.48 m ²), with the same mass of 3400 kg, but without overload.
There was an unrealized project of a two-fuselage Sche-2 with three M-11Ds, nominated by Shcherbakov's deputy MV Lyapin.
Flight and operational tests of serial samples in the Air Force and Civil Air Fleet system have confirmed the good qualities of the aircraft. Only the agricultural option was not approved due to insufficient maneuverability on low level flight (85 s turn time) and low climb rate. In this version, the chassis was increased by 0.45 m and wheels 800X260 mm were taken.
The Sche-2 plane did not show all its capabilities. It was essentially a glider fly (motor glider) with a very high power load, reaching 16 kg /hp. Takeoff distance to climb 25 m - 980 m, landing - 560 m. He needed engines of 150-200 hp or MG-31 in 300 hp, provided for in the aircraft project, but terminated with the war. M-11D in 115 hp were definitely not enough for him, but there were no others for the series. And yet the Sche-2 plane was of great use, although the pilots did not really like it because of its low power.
However, flying with one engine running was possible near the ground with a mass of up to 3000 kg, that is, almost without a cargo. The aircraft was easy to operate, suitable and appropriate for local lines. It was also used after the war, being available to a pilot with below average qualifications.
* - One way