Aviation of World War II
Development of a bomber began Tu-2 at the end of 1939. This airplane, as well as Pe-2 formed in prison conditions, but it became the best Soviet bomber of WW2. In January, 1941 the prototype airplane designated "103" has issued on tests. In May of the same year tests of its improved version "103U" have begun.
On tests "103" and "103U" have shown hight flight performances. On speed on mean and high altitudes, range, bombing loading and a power of defensive arms they essentially surpassed Pe-2. In July, 1941 the solution on start "103U" in a series was accepted. However in conditions of the begun war to organize manufacture of motors of AM-37 it was not possible. Therefore designers had to rework an airplane under other motors ASh-82 of Shvetsov which have just started to be produced.
Tests of new version of the airplane named "103В", and then Tu-2 have begun in December, 1941, and in 1942 from the conveyor the first production machines have manufactured. Pilots - front-line soldiers extremely highly have estimated a new bomber. They liked its good flight performances, a capability of the sure flight on one motor, the good scheme of a defensive armament, the big bombing loading.
On the plant was manufactured already 80 aircrafts when has come the governmental solution on its replacement by fighter Yak-9.
* Forcing of the engine during 10 minutes.
** Decrease flight dimensions is caused by amplification of defensive arms.
The inaccuracy of this solution became obvious very soon, and manufacture Tu-2 have renewed a year later, after the Battle of the Kursk Bulge. By that time, the Tu-2S (standard) had been significantly improved. Its design has been simplified from a technological point of view. The aircraft became easier to operate, and also had better characteristics. The plane damaged during state tests was repaired. Its tests continued in Moscow, where the Tupolev design bureau returned (in November 1943). The next series of tests took place from March 19 to April 28, 1943.
The modified car showed the following speed growth:
At 6 km/h near the ground with normal engine operation;
12 km/h in second boost gear;
The speed of 545 km/h was developed in afterburner with the second turbocharging gear.
Various works to improve the Tu-2. During preparation for serial production at plant No. 7 in 1942, instead of a ShKAS machine gun, it was decided to install a 12.7-mm Berezin machine gun in the lower rear firing point. In the spring of the same year, the UB machine gun was placed at the place of the radio operator, and in the fall - the navigator. When the production of the Tu-2 was interrupted in October 1942, the plane was already carrying only large-caliber machine guns. The fixed 7.62 mm ShKAS machine guns installed in the bow and firing forward were removed at the request of the military. At the beginning of 1942, the armament of the Tu-2 consisted of two ShVAK cannons installed in the center section, and three large-caliber machine guns that protected the rear hemisphere.
In May 1943, Tupolev proposed to install new M-82FNV engines (forced with direct injection) on the 103V. In July 1943, a prototype with new engines showed that the speed at the ground increased by 32 km/h, at an altitude of 1450 m - by 18 km/h and at an altitude of 5000 m - by 23 km / h. According to the results of the GKO tests, by order No. 3754 of July 17, 1943, he sent Tu-2 with M-82FNV engines into series.
In July and August 1943, the Tupolev Design Bureau modified aircraft No. 716, which became the prototype for the Tu-2S (C is the standard). The production of aircraft was established at the plant number 23, which until that time had been producing Il-4 bombers).
Airplanes of this type were applied on fronts since 1944. For the period 1942 - 1945 of all have constructed 1216 Tu - 2.