Aviation of World War II

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UT-2M at refueling

UT-2 - training double-seat low-wing aircraft, development of AIR-9 and AIR-10, but the fuselage and center section are wooden. Plane sheathing - plywood with canvas. The first flight took place in May 1935 with an M-11 engine with a power of 100 hp.

UT-2 has become one of the main training aircraft in military schools and flying clubs. Its speed is 205 km / h, the ceiling is 3500 m. The UT-1, which is much more strict in piloting, was used mainly for training pilots - unit commanders and instructors. Its speed is 257 km / h, the ceiling is 7120 m. In the pre-war years, sports pilots set several international records (including women) of altitude, speed and range for an aircraft of this weight category at the UT-1 and UT-2. The UT-2 was serially built from 1937 to 1944 and until 1948 was the main training aircraft in the Air Force flight schools.

In order to improve the spin characteristics in 1941, the UT-2M aircraft was created, which was distinguished by an increase in sweep and transverse V wing, a modified tail, a decrease in the area of ​​ailerons, etc. The UT-2M was very easy to control, forgiving gross student mistakes , did not enter a flat spin, but entered a steep spin very reluctantly and exited it even with neutral rudders without the slightest delay. The aircraft was widely recognized and appreciated. The use of the UT-2 was constantly expanding, and by the beginning of the war, it completely replaced the U-2 as a training aircraft.

UT-2 Specification
Crew 2
Wing span, m 10.20
Wing area, m² 17.20
Lenght, m 7.00
Height, m 2.55
1 × PE radial M-11E, power h.p. 1 × 150
Weight, kg
Empty 616
Loaded weight 856
Gross weight 938
Maximum speed, km/h 230
Cruising speed, km/h 205
Service range, km 500
Service ceiling, m 3,500
Photo Description
Drawing UT-2M

Drawing UT-2M


Light Attack Aircraft


In 1942, the Yakovlev Design Bureau developed a version of the UT-2V armed aircraft intended for training in bombing in flight schools. The plane was mass-produced.

Based on the experience in the construction of the UT-2V and, apparently, relying on the experience of the combat use of the armed UT-1 aircraft, the N247 plant equipped and tested at the Air Force Research Institute an armed UT-2MV aircraft with an M-11F engine (140 l . s.), intended for combat use at the front as a light bomber.

The modernized UT-2M aircraft was taken as a basis, which has large reserves of stability and less strict piloting technique.

Four DER-31 bombing locks were installed under the wing, providing the suspension of four 50 kg bombs with one crew member and two 50 kg bombs with two crew members. It was possible to suspend eight RS-82 rockets and two 50 kg bombs with one crew member. With RS-s, the aircraft could be used as a light attack aircraft.

The tests were conducted by lead engineer-pilot Sinelnikov and lead engineer Kalilets. During the tests, it was found that the bombing accuracy is low. The maximum flight speed is 176 km / h.

In his letter to A.I. Shakhurin A.S. Yakovlev wrote: "This weapon will be very effective when using the aircraft as a night light attack bomber" . Yakovlev asked Shakhurin to order the production of 20 UT-2 aircraft with bomber and jet weapons to be sent to the front as part of one regiment in order to test their qualities in combat conditions.

In accordance with the GKOK decree of September 9, 1942, plant No. 600 began serial production of UT-2MV aircraft. In 1942, it was planned to manufacture 17 serial UT-2MV. Moreover, the introduction of the installation of the RO-82 beams was supposed to be carried out from 1943. However, the serial production did not take place.

UT-2MB Specification
Crew 1(2)
Wing span, m 10.20
Wing area, m² 17.20
Lenght, m 7.00
Height, m 2.55
1 × PE M-11F, power h.p. 1 × 140
Weight, kg
Empty 620
Gross weight 1150
Maximum speed, km/h 215
Cruising speed, km/h 186
Service range, km 450
Service ceiling, m 3,200
4 × 50 kg bombs or 8 × RS-82 and 2 × 50 kg bombs


  • The history of aircraft designs in the USSR, 1938-1950. /V.B. Shavrov /
  • Red Army stormtroopers / Vladimir Perov, Oleg Rastrenin /
  • Stories of an aircraft designer / A.S. Yakovlev /

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Drawing Як-18

July 15, 2020.
A logical continuation of the UT-2 was the Yak-18 - an all-metal aircraft with a retractable landing gear, created in 1946, which, in all geometric parameters and aerodynamic characteristics, practically repeated the UT-2 produced in 1937. Its first modification had the M-11FR engine , with a capacity of 160 hp, while the aircraft developed a maximum speed of 250 km / h, at a cruising speed of 205 km / h.