Aviation of WWII
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Pilot`s Notes Wellington Pilot`s Notes



January 1944.

41. Testing engines and installations

While warming up:

(i) Check temperatures and pressures, and test operation of the hydraulic system by lowering and raising the flaps.

Note.—The following comprehensive checks should be carried out after repair, inspection, other than daily, or otherwise at the pilot's discretion. Normally they may be reduced in accordance with local instructions.

After warming up to at least I5°C oil temperature and 120°C cylinder temperature, for each engine in turn:

(ii) Open up to 1,500 r.p.m. and exercise and check operation of the two-speed supercharger. (On Mark XI, XII, XTII and XIV aircraft this will not be possible.) Oil pressure should drop momentarily at each change.

(iii) At maximum weak continuous boost (but in rich mixture) exercise and check operation of the constant-speed propeller.

(iv) With the propeller control fully forward open the throttle fully and check take-off boost and static r.p.m.

(v) Throttle back to maximum rich continuous boost and test each magneto in turn. The drop should not exceed 50 r.p.m.

42. Check list before taxying

Brake pressure .. ... 100 lb./sq.in (minm.).

Hatches .....Closed

Fuel ...... Check contents

Pressure heed heater .... ON

43. Check list before take-off

T —Trimming tabs ... All neutral

M—Mixture controls ... NORMAL

P —Propeller controls ... Levers fully forward ; Master switches ON; Selector switches AUTO

F —Fuel pressure balance

cock .. . .. OFF (down)

Superchargers .... MEDIUM

Carburettor air intakes COLD

F —Flaps ........ 20° down

Auto-pilot .... Cock—OUT


Main switch—OFF

Gills .......... One-third OPEN

Oil coolershutters (Mk. III aircraft only) .. Open as necessary

Throttle lever friction device .... ... Pulled back.

44. Take-off

(i) At 29,000 Ib. get the tail well up and counteract any tendency to swing right by use of the rudder. If necessary, the starboard throttle should be opened slightly ahead of the port throttle.

(ii) At 33,000 Ib. and over, the tendency to swing right is more pronounced and the aircraft should not be pulled off the ground at a speed lower than 85 m.p.h- (75 knots) I.A.S.

(iii) Increase speed to 125 m.p.h. (no knots) I.A.S., which is the safety speed when taking off without flaps, then throttle back to climbing boost and reduce to climbing r.p.m. With 2orj flap, safety speed is 115 m.p.h. (100 knots) I.A.S.

(iv) At a safe height of 600-800 feet raise the flap*.

45. Climbing

The speed for maximum rate of climb is initially 130 m.p.h. (115 knots) I.A.S.

46. General flying

(i) Stability : The aircraft is dircctionallv and longitudinally stable, with only slight stability on the climb. Laterally, depressing a wing causes the nose to drop, with slow recovery of the wing.

(ii) Controls: When flying in bumpy weather, pilots may experience a slight "kick " on the controls, originating from the elevator and rudder. This does not interfere in any way with the control of the aircraft and can be ignored.

(iii) Change of trim:

Undercarriage down .. .. Nose slightly down Flaps down .. .. Nose up The change of trim on lowering flaps is reduced by the permanent interconnection of the elevator trimming tabs with the flaps, but is not entirely eliminated. It is essential that the elevator trimming tab control should not be forward of the central position before the flaps are lowered, or damage to the tab control mechanism may result. On some aircraft a spring catch is fitted which allows the pilot to feel the central position on moving the control.

(iv) Flying at low airspeeds : At speeds below 125 m.p.h. (no knots) I.A.S. it is more pleasant to fly with the flaps lowered 20".

(v) Oil cooler shutters (Mk III aircraft only) : When operating in cold air conditions, the shutters must be used to maintain a normal oil inlet temperature. If left fully open in very cold conditions the coolers will freeze and give high temperatures, in which case the shutters must be closed fully for a short period and then partially opened.

47. Stalling

(i) The stall with flaps and undercarriage down is normal. One wing usually drops fairly quickly, and as the aircraft heels over, the nose falls below the horizon, (ii) Stalling speeds in m.p.h. {knots) I.A.S. :

28,000 Ib. 34,500 Ib.

Flaps and undercarriage up.. 70 (60) 78 (67)

Flaps and undercarriage down 58(50) 64(55)

48. Diring

(i) Leave the propeller speed controls at the cruising setting and (with electric propellers) the selector switches in the AUTO position.

(ii) The aircraft should not he trimmed into the dive, but pushed into the dive. If it is trimmed in, excessive backward pull on the control column is necessary at high speeds.

(iii) Ease out of the dive very slowly and open the throttles gently to avoid momentary overspecding.

49. Check list before landing


Main switch—OFF

Brake pressure .. .. 100 lb./sq.in. (minm.)

Carburettor air intakes .. COLD

Gills .... CLOSED

Elevator trimming tabs .. Neutral

(see para. 46(iii))

Superchargers .... MEDIUM

Reduce speed to 140 m.p.h. (120 knots) I.A.S.

U—Undercarriage DOWN (check by lights and horn)

M—Mixture controls ..... NORMAL

P —Propeller controls ... Levers fully forward

Selector switches— AUTO

F— Fuel .. ... Nacelle tanks on

Flaps may be lowered to the take-off position at 140 m.p.h. (120 knots) I.A.S.

Reduce speed still further to 120 m.p.h. (105 knots) I.A.S.

F— Flap .. .. .. Fully DOWN

50. Approach (i) Recommended approach speeds in m.p.h. (knots) I.A.S.are:

  26,000 lb 29,000 lb
Engine assisted 85(75) 90(80)
Glide 100(85) 105(90)
Flapless—engine assisted 105(90) 40(95)

(ii) If a flapless approach is necessary, trim well back and come in low with plenty of engine.

51. Mislanding

(i) The aircraft will climb with undercarriage and flaps down. At 28,000 Ib. speed should be 90 m.p.h. (So knots) I.A.S. until the flaps have been raised.

(ii) Raise the undercarriage immediately.

(iii) If the elevator tab control is aft of neutral it may be wound forward to central, but must not be forced past this position until the flaps have been raised.

(iv) Raise the flaps a little at a time at a safe height of about 500 feet.

52. After landing

(i) Raise the flaps and open the cowling gills.

(ii) To stop the engines, head the aircraft into wind and allow the engines to cool; then open up gradually and run for five seconds at — 2 lb./Sq.in. boost. Close the throttle slowly to give 800-1,000 r.p.m., run at this speed for two minutes, then pull the slow-running cut-out controls.

(hi) Switch OFF the ignition after the engine has stopped.

(iv) Close the oil cooler shutters (Mark III aircraft only) and turn OFF all fuel cocks.

(v) Oil dilution (see A.P. 2095):

The dilution period for these aircraft is 4 minutes and the operation should be carried out at аn engine speed not exceeding 1,000 r.p.m.

53. Beam approach

(i) The recommended speeds (m.p.h. (knots) I.A.S.), r.p.m., boost (lb./sq.in.) and flap settings are:

  Maintaining height Final approach
with u/c down
Speed 130(115) 130(115) 100-105 (85-90)
Flaps 15° 15° 40° at O.M.B. Lower fully at I.M.B.
R.p.m. 2,000 2,400 Fully forward (AUTO)
Boost -3 -1 to -2 -2 approx.

(ii) For change of trim sec Para. 46(iii).

(iii) Approach at 600 feet over the O.M. Beacon, reducing to 100 feet over the l.M. Beacon.

Note. —Altimeter reads 50 feet at too feet.

(iv) Signal strength is best when flying parallel to the beam and weakest when flying away from it.